What short acting benzodiazapine is commonly used in the cath lab for sedation?
What is a quick easy way to check a patient's clotting time after being given heparin?
How do ticlid and plavix act?
What is the normal range of potassium in the blood?
Name some antiplatelet medications.
How does heparin prevent clot formation?
Constrictive pericarditis is best diagnosed by ___.
Respiratory variation greater than 10 mmHg change with pulsus paradoxus greater than 10 mmHg are indications of ___.
Physiology effects of tamponade include ___, ___, and ___.
Pericardiocentisis as treatment of tamponade requires ___ needle placement.
Coumadin inactivates ___.
Lovenox prevents factor X conversion to factor ___.
Heparin prevents conversion of prothrombin to ___.
Angiomax prevents conversion of prothrombin to ___ and prevents conversion of thrombin to ___.
ReoPro sits on ___ receptor sites and is the only drug in its class that ___.
The active agent in closure devises is ___.
An increase in lactic acid will ___ heart rate.
Increases in pulmonary blood pressure (gas exchange) results in ___ blood velocity across the capillary bed and ___ O2 SAT.
COPD leads to enlarged alveoli which can ___ or ___ the alveoli capillaries.
Endothelial cells secrete ___ causing vasodilation.
Phase one of the clotting cascade results in ___ adhesion and ___ site activation.
Activated IIb/IIIa receptor sites allow ___ adhesion.
ASA inactivates ___ and ___.
Plavix stops ADP thus blocking ___ site preps.
What would increase LVEDP and not LV pressure?
What is the RV pressure of pulmonary stenosis?
What is the RA pressure of tricuspid regurgitation?
Does COPD increase or decrease PA pressure?
What right heart pressures does COPD affect?
MS ___ PA pressure.
MR ___ PA pressure.
Can PA systolic pressure ever be greater than RV systolic pressure?
MR, MS, and LV MI each ___ PCWP.
Is LVEF = RVEF?
Why is RVEDP different from LVEDP?
Lidocaine can be used to treat ___.
Lidocaine acts on the heart's conduction system by ___.
A right ventricular MI will cause an increase in ___ with no change in peak ejection pressure or PA pressure.
Tricuspid stenosis increases the pressure in which heart chamber?
Where is an increase in RA pressure visible on a patient?
What would cause a LV systolic pressure increase?
Which blood chemistry test is used as a indicator for the use of a non-ionic contrast material rather than an ionic one?
Which blood gas changes would be expected in a patient that has begun to hyperventilate in anticipation of a catheterization?
A ventricular gallop is associated with which heart sound?
Interstitial pulmonary adema is associated with an advanced degree of ___.
Based on the following data: O2 Consumption = 250 ml/min., AO = 21.0 vol. %, PA = 16.0 vol. %, BSA = 1.8 M2. What is the approximate cardiac output for the patient?
Based on the following data: O2 Consumption = 250 ml/min., AO = 21.0 vol. %, PA = 16.0 vol. %, BSA = 1.8 M2. What is the approximate cardiac index for the patient?
If T-wave sensing occurs in ventricular demand or synchronous pacing, what must be done to the programmable generator?
If a patient had a large S-wave in lead VI and a large R-wave in V5, you might suspect:
What is most likely indicated from the following oximetry samples?
SVC, 70%, RV, 86%
IVC, 71%, PA, 86%
Hi RA, 78%, LA, 94%
Mid RA, 86%, LV, 94%
Low RA, 83%, AO, 94%
On an ECG, which of the following may indicate a loose connection of a temporary pacing wire at the pulse generator spikes?
An ___ will markedly elevate right ventricular systolic pressure.
An ___ may be caused by rapid accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac.
A patient has a cardiac output of 5 L/min. and a heart rate of 75 beats per minute. If stroke volume remains constant, what will be the effect of an increase in heart rate to 150 beats per minute? Cardiac output would:
Cardiac myxomas are usually located in the:
Overdrive suppression of Torsade de Pointes and atrial flutter works by pacing the heart according to the following protocol:
What is the BEST indicator of the exact moment the aortic and pulmonary valves open?
In an aortic pressure recording, a gradual upstroke with a prominent low anacrotic notch is indicative of:
A fall in pressure between the ___ and the ___ is characteristic of Tetralogy of Fallot?
In an aortic pressure recording, a rapid upstroke with a large pulse pressure is indicative of:
What is MOST likely indicated by the following pressures:
RV = 26/2, PA= 25/19, LA = mean of 18, LV = 142/8, AO = 145/75?
In cardiac tamponade, venous pressures ___ and arterial pressures ___.
What typically increases to compensate for constrictive diseases which impede filling?
What is responsible for the second heart sound (S2)?
What may be considered the MOST common cause of confusion in determination of angina pectoris?
The ___ catheter will not handle an injection of 36-55 cc's at a rate of 12-18 cc/second.
The MOST commonly used scalpel blade used for the skin incision in preparation for a Sones technique of catheterization is the ___ blade.
What is a major advantage of using high mA settings during angiography?
The greatest problem associated with a femoral stick above the inguinal ligament is:
What are factors that can diminish the validity of ventriculography?
A primary problem or complaint of the patient with mitral valve regurgitation is ___.
What is the approximate peak time for troponin?
What is the approximate peak time for CK-MB?
What is the approximate peak time for LDH?
Appropriate pre-med for a catheterization patient with a history of dye allergies includes:
What anomaly is MOST commonly associated with inferior rib margin notching visible on a chest x-ray?
What is the resultant condition when PCWP pressure exceeds the oncotic pressure of the plasma proteins?
The MOST common effect of using a mA that is too low is ___.
Which inotropic agent predominately stimulates Beta 1 receptors?
Altering the ___ is NOT a mechanism of action for anti-tachycardia agents.
Some mechanisms of action for anti-tachycardia agents include:
"Waveform damping" can be indicated by a:
"Waveform damping" may be caused by ___ in the ___.
"Waveform damping" may represent restriction of ___ due to total or ___.
In x-rays, mA effects ___.
In x-rays, kV effects ___.
In x-rays, mA has the greatest influence over ___.
Which electrolyte imbalance aggravates digitalis toxicity?
Which medication inhibits sodium reabsorption causing an increase in urine output?
What is a MAJOR indication for the administration of sodium bicarbonate?
Rapid injection of procainamide may cause ___.
Nifedipine is what class of drug?
The most common effect of using a pulse width that is too slow is ___.
The electrical current that determines the number of photons generated by an x-ray tube is called the ___.
The anode produces ___ within the x-ray tube.
Cesium-iodide is commonly used as a the ___ for an image intensifier.
How many cc's of contrast should be placed in a 20 cc syringe when prepping the PTCA balloon catheter?
Which of the following is purely contraindicated for the use of inta-aortic counterpulsation?
What are some typical side effects of thrombolytics?
What are some contraindications for the use of thrombolitycs?
The threshold for an implantable pacemaker can be described as:
The first derivative of the LV pressure is a measure of ___.
The most common mechanism of tachycardia is ___.
Can a NIH catheter be introduced by an over-the-wire method?
The amount of stretch inherent in balloon materials is described as ___.
A commonly seen complication following a transvenous pacemaker implant is ___.
Which leads are commonly affected by an anterior infarction?
The BEST location for an IVC filter is ___.
Which view of the heart is provided by leads V3 and V4?
In the presence of a L to R VSD, a mixed venous blood sample can BEST be obtained from where?
Reprogramming the ___ can override a DDD pacemaker induced tachycardia.
When the device settings for intra-aortic counter pulsation are properly set, the systemic BP should ___ and the diastolic BP should ___.
One complication of mechanical heart valves is ___.
Proper inflation of an intra-aortic counter pulsation balloon results in ___.
Which temporary pacemaker adjustment would change the unit from the demand mode to the asynchronous mode?
Under normal functioning circumstances, what is considered a normal MEAN BP range for systemic circulation?
Oxygen capacity is defined as:
In the AP projection, which structure is the most posterior?
Which artery usually lies in the posterior interventricular groove?
Where is the MAJOR component of vascular resistance generated?
What activity is associated with the arterial dicrotic notch?
What is a typical finding during cardiac catheterization for a patient with suspected hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
What disease state is MOST commonly associated with reduced upstroke velocity in arterial pressure tracing?
The degree of cyanosis in TOF is chiefly determined by what?
For what condition is the Fontan procedure an appropriate surgical correction?
What condition is associated with different blood pressures in the upper and lower extremities?
Medical treatment with anti-inflammatory agents is most common for what condition?
A multipurpose catheter is considered primarily to be a ___ heart catheter.
Which method of measuring cardiac output is least desirable in the detection of a shunt?
Which approach is necessary to perform transseptal left heart catheterization?
What is the formula for calculating systemic vascular resistance?
Which cardiac output should be used to calculate valve regurgitation?
Which right heart pressure best reflects LV preload?
Which balloon is used for valvuloplasty?
Aortic stenosis demonstrates a pressure that is elevated in the left ventricle and a pressure that is lower in the ___.
If a patient has a pulsatile mass below the sheath site, and a bruit is present, what should be suspected?
An abdominal aortic pulsation greater than 3.0 cm can be a finding for what pathology?
Back pain not relieved with nitroglycerin, morphine or oxygen and is not associated with EKG changes can indicate ___.
Which stent is self expanding?
A catheter is 2.66 mm. What French size is it?
In relation to a coronary lesion, where should the wire be placed?
Which lesion is best addressed with a rotoblador?
Which catheter should be used to cannulate an LAD with a high takeoff?
Landmarks for an internal jugular approach include the:
If the patient complains of pain down the leg when attempting to cannulate the right femoral artery, which way do you move the needle?
Coronary arteries perfuse best during ___.
What is the purpose of the IABP?
A common complication of a rotoblador is ___.
AN IMA catheter most nearly resembles a ___.
What is the recommended rate of burr rotation when using a rotoblador?
Over tightening of the touhy bourst will ___.
The best device for management of an acute thrombus in a vessel is ___.
Which device employs the use of sterile heparinized saline to evacuate thrombus?
Calcified lesions are best managed with which device?
What is the formula for calculating cardiac output?
Stroke volume is:
Preload is most impacted by:
A patient with chronic, untreated hypertension would demonstrate:
Vascular resistance/pressure is most influenced by?
The formula for BP is:
What component of a PCWP indicates Mitral Insufficiency?
RV waveforms indicating greater than normal pressure indicate what pathologies?
An elevated RVEDP is found in which pathology?
If the RV waveform is 2x the normal value, where would this be demonstrated in the physical assessment?
What is the most common cause of Pulmonic Stenosis?
The blue proximal port of the swan is located how far back from the distal tip of the swan?
When performing a thermodilution cardiac output, the operator injects 10cc of saline into the ___ and the temp change is measured in the ___
After the transducer is zeroed it falls onto the floor. The pressure being read off the transducer is now reading _____
A pressure gradient from the LV to the aorta indicates:
LVEDP is hemodynamically measured on the waveform at:
Pulsus Paradoxus is a sign of:
Signs of LV failure include:
Equalization of RVEDP and LVEDP are found in:
Signs of Right Heart Failure include:
If a patient demonstrates a systemic blood flow of 4 L/min and a pulmonary blood flow of 16 L/min, what is the shunt direction and shunt flow?
What is Flamm's equation?
The formula used to calculate MAP is
What are the four anomalies associated with Tetrology of Fallot?
Which fetal anomaly is characterized by a large ventricular septal defect over which a large, single great vessel arises?
If the shunt ratio on a patient is measuring 5:1, what does that tell you?
What does RAD stand for?
Which component of the x-ray system converts light rays into images?
What is the maximum annual dose of radiation one can receive?
Lead protection should be at least how many millimeters of lead?
What is the minimum safe distance to position oneself from the x-ray source?
In an x-ray tube the cathode is ___ and the anode is ___
Which view exposes the operator to the greatest amount of radiation?
What converts x-rays into an image?
The contrast that is best for a patient is:
Reopro works on:
Heparin potentiates the action of:
Fibrinogen is converted to fibrin by the action of:
There are ___ known pathways to initiate the clotting cascade.
Aspirin inhibits the release of ___ from the platelet.
Which agent is not an antiplatelet?
If a patient has diabetes and renal failure with a creatinine of 2.0 what would you give?
If a patient is taking NPH insulin, which medication should not be given?
Which medicine is most commonly given with SVT?
If a patient has a creatinine greater than 1.4, contrast volume should be minimized.
Lidocaine converts from 2GM in 500cc to:
Dopamine concentration 1600mcg/ml in 250cc yields a concentration of:
The best short acting medication/anxietyolitic to sedate a patient is:
The drug of choice for treating coronary spasm is:
Amiodarone is used to treat:
The labs that best evaluate kidney function are:
What medication is used as a preload and afterload reducer?
Diabetic patients have a greater incidence of developing ___ post contrast administration.
Which EKG rhythm is most likely to become lethal?
Which EKG rhythm has asynchronous p-waves and r-waves, each recorded at their intrinsic rate?
What arrhythmia presents with a saw-tooth pattern?
An EKG demonstrates ST elevation in leads II, III, and AVf. What type of infarct would you suspect?
An EKG demonstrates ST elevation in leads II, III, AVf. Which coronary artery is most likely occluded?
How do you test the defibrillator?
What happens if you deliver a shock to a patient on the t-wave?
In a 1st degree heart block, where is the conduction delay?
What is the normal PR interval?
If a patient is attached to the monitor, v-tach is the rhythm, the patient has no pulse and is not responding, what should you do?
A patient is on the monitor in a SVT, BP is 70, the patient is diaphoretic, dusky and SOB. What should you do?
A common complication of placing a pacing electrode/wire is:
A pacing generator that paces both chambers, senses in the ventricle, and inhibits QRS complexes is a:
A pacing generator that paces both chambers, senses in both chambers, and triggers OR inhibits is a:
A pacing generator that paces in the atria, senses in the atria, and inhibits pacing is a:
What are the two primary vessels used in adult cardiac catheterization?
Which of the following are the MOST common catheter positions for performing an initial VT study?
Which two of the seven major zones of the left ventricle are NOT visualized in a 30 degree RAO LV angiogram?
Which of the following represents the greatest risk of complication during ventriculography?
For which of the following purposes is a Fogarty catheter used?
When doing a right heart catheterization on a patient with LBBB, which of the following is appropriate?