The periodic table
All the different elements are arranged in a chart called the periodic table.
The horizontal rows are called periods.
The vertical columns are called groups.
Elements in the same group are similar to each other.
The metals are on the left and the non-metals are on the right.
One non-metal, hydrogen, is often put in the middle.
The main groups are numbered from 1 to 7 going from left to right, and the last group on the right is group 0.
Iron, magnesium and gold are examples of metal elements.
All metals have these properties in common:
They are shiny, especially when they are freshly cut.
They are good conductors of both heat and electricity.
They can be bent without breaking (they are malleable).
Most metals also have these properties:
they are solid at room temperature, except mercury, which is liquid at room temperature
they are hard and strong
they have a high density (they feel heavy for their size)
they make a ringing sound when they are hit (they are sonorous)
Mercury is the only metal that is liquid at standard room temperature and pressure
Mercury is the only liquid metal at room temperature.
Three metals are magnetic.
These are iron, cobalt and nickel. Steel is a mixture of elements but mostly iron, so it is also magnetic. The other metals are not magnetic.