Why is human african tropanomosis so common?
Most drugs are outdated
Most drugs have severe side effects
Most drugs are incredibly expensive
Most drugs cannot be used on the immunocompromised
The cause of Human African Tropanomosis is a virus known as Tropanosome
Tropanosomes contain 1 mitochondria that depends on what for energy?
The enzyme that tropanosomes rely on allows glycolysis to continue indefinitely
What other components make up the tropanonsome's mitochondria?
Cytochrome BC1 complex
How does Alternative Oxidase get its energy source?
Glucose in the blood plasma
Glucose in the infected red blood cell
Glucose from other blood proteins
Cryptosporidium Parvum can only become fatal to the immunocompromised
Name the following
Cryptosporidium parvum cysts
Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts
Cryptosporidium parvum oocytes
Which of the following are characteristic of Alternative Oxidase?
Reduces O2 to H2O
Reduces O2 to H2O2
No absorption about 340nm
Alt. Ox. is a 34kDa monomer
Why does Alt. Ox. not absorb above 340nm?
It contains no Cyt's or Fe-S
It contains no chromosomes
It contains no Cty's or Flavins
To activate, Alt. Ox must form a dimer
What is particular about Rubreythrin?
It is the olden protein yet sequenced - 4 billion years old
It's the smallest protein yet sequenced - just 40 aa long
It's the largest protein yet sequenced - 400,000 kDa
Only 6 aa in Alt. Ox have been conserved, relating it to other di-iron proteins
The conserved sequence of Alt. Ox. codes for amino acids holding what?
Which of the following list characteristics of Alt. Oxidase?
Sits horizontally in the membrane
Sits vertically in the membrane
Made of 2 chains, almost entirely of alpha helices
Made of 3 chains, almost entirely of alpha helices
Made of 2 chains, almost entirely of beta sheets
2 Alpha helices dock Alt. Ox in the membrane
How does the substrate get to Alt. Ox's active site?
Through a hydrophobic cavity
It is 'caught' by alpha helices extending into the cytoplasm
It uses membrane phospholipids which move through it
The following shows the core of Alt. Oxidase- what's contained in it?
2 Fe atoms
2 Cu atoms
Linked by hydroxyl groups
Linked by amide groups
From 4 leucine residues
From 4 glutamine residues
And 2 Histadine &1 Tyrosine residues
The Histadine/Tyrosine residues can be used to inhibit Alt. Ox
To travel through the channel and reach the active site, inhibitors must be...
Different co-ordinations of the aa in the Alt. Ox core can alter the function of it
Alt. Ox. is a terminal respiratory chain oxidase
Where is Alt. Ox found, in infected humans?
Between Complexes 1 & 2
Between complexes 2 & 3
Between complexes 3 & 4
Alternative Ox is used as a stress protein in pathogens, and an oxygen scavenger in plants
Which of the following use Alt. Ox?
American/Asian Skunk Cabbage
Dead Horse Arum