Define a lignand.
draw a graph to show a the effect on hearing after a single loud music concert on a teenage person. suggest values for hearing levels (dB) and approximately the frequency notable points occur.
Give the two types of gating mechanisms, and also give the main positives and negatives of each type of activation.
What groups can transmitters be put into? (there are 4)
Out of these, suggest what order or efficiency they go in improving performance. Video+ attentional cues, Video+ Correcting Cues, Video alone, Knowledge of results.
What are mini motor end plate potentials?
At what amplitude does the ear work best to differentiate between two sounds?
What are two potential physiological reasons for reduction in hearing due to excessive exposure to loud noise?
Describe what is meant when we say the somatotopic representation is plastic using a practical example to help with your description.
What is kinematic feedback?
The smaller/larger the auditory stimulus the quicker the reaction.
Infants/Adults have a quicker reaction time to an auditory stimulus.
When we react to something without thinking about it, making it very fast this is know as the ____ _____.
Using your hearing, how might you estimate someones positions as they talk to you?
What are some problems with using sounds to locate people?
The balance between ___ and ___ is effected when we have a stroke making moments ____.
Give the four levels of attention.
The ______ and the ______ are sub-cortical structures. Generally what do they do?
Give and example of biofeedback and kinetic feedback
Describe the stages to how a stimuli might cause a response?
What does the cerebellum do?
What does the Basal Ganglia do?
We can class sensory things into two groups, what are they?
What is the problem with vision when used alone to determine orientation.
What is the vestibulo-ocular reflex?
The semicircular canals in the ear are made up of three parts, what are they called?
Attention is _____ and can be distributed to suit the situation.
What does the otolith organs allow us to respond to?
Why is the otolith organ required?
Why cant we distinguish between forwards tilt and acceleration?
When we have a contradiction between visual information and vestibular information, what does our brain do?
If everyone has the same attentional capacity, explain how we can focus our attention?
What are the two main parts of the semicircular canal called?
If attention is spread too thin we are likely to ...
What is topographical sensation?
Describe how the semicircular canal works in detecting rotation? why can drinking alcohol affect how we feel rotation?
Describe why we have a post rotational effect?
As complexity of a task increases the attention required _____.
Why when a nerve is cut, do we not lose all of our sensation in that section of our body?
How do we know if the world is moving or if is our body that is moving?
What are the muscles in the eye that control eye moment? (6 in total)
Define a dermatome.
what is the problem with having stiff ankles as our only method of balance?
Define and given examples of ipsilateral sensations.
Define and given examples of contralateral sensations.
When standing normally we remain totally still. True or False?
What structure is the weakest link (i.e.stretches most) in the ankle joint?
Is someone had an accident where the right side of their brain was damaged, how would their body be affected? (include how it will effect temperature, touch and pain sensations)
Describe the stroop test, and what it shows.
Name they method of mapping sounds depending on their location.
Give the main points of an internal feedback system
Describe what a psychological refractory period is.
Explain the concept of degrees of freedom when applied to the number of colours in a picture.
What is a saccade?
What is convergence?
What do we find easier to detect, movement or the absolute position of our limbs. What sense detects each?
What is pursuit, when related to the eyes?
When we are about to lift a load how many signals are sent to the spinal cord by the brain, what are these signals and what nerves do they travel down?
What are the three types of mechanoreceptors?
Describe how as we increase the number of stimuli the reaction time changes using a graph. suggest the correct units and values for key points on the graph
Where can muscle spindles be found? What do they do?
What is a Nystagmus?
What part of our brain is required to control the fast eye movements we experience?
What are the two types of muscle spindle? what do each of them detect?
When a good/poor estimation of the force is given, our movement is thought to be ballistic.
very high accuracy can have a positive/negative effect on results. Why is this?
Primary endings of muscle spindles lie in the ____ of the spindle, while secondary endings lie ______.
Give three ways augmented feedback may work?
It has been found that _____ receptors play a large role in internal feedback and force detection.
Having a nervous system allows us to do what three things?
What are gamma motor neurons?
Why do we need nerves, and cant just reply on chemical messaged like plants?
The primary endings of a muscle spindles use the ___ fibers.
The secondary endings of muscle spindles use the ____ fibers.
How does a nuclear chain spindle differ from a nuclear bag spindle when a muscle has been moved but is now stationary.
Nerves leak, so charge leave through the nerves ____. When forward resistance is greater than ____ resistance charge ____ from the cell.
The golgi tendon organ would be found ......
What fiber type is connected to a golgi tendon organ?
Insulating a nerve can ____ its leakage.
Describe a ballistic control system, labeling each component.
Give three things that can affect the psychological refractory period.
Why can a golgi tendon organ only sense active tension (and what is active tension)
Give a positive and negative of a ballistic control system.
Define the space constant.
the front and back of the brain do different things but which section controls the motor processes and which collaborates the sensory information?
What is a continuous task and what is a discrete task?
Describe a parametric feed-forward system, labeling each component of the system.
Explain why increasing a nerve size increasing the space constant, despite increasing the nerve surface area.
Give a positive and negative of a parametric feed-forward system.
Describe a parametric feedback control system, including labels for the main components.
Participants were asked to tap targets at varying distances apart, on both small and large target areas. Their reaction time to a secondary stimulus was measured. Describe a graph that shows the change in reaction time as the distance and size of the target changes.
Give differences in novice and professional affect to dedicating high levels of attention to tasks. Give an example of how you could test this with professional golfers.
Give the main positive of using a parametic feedback system.
The pyramidal system runs directly/indirectly from the motor cortex to the lower motor neuron. Fibers normally cross/don't cross the spinal cord before reaching their target.
The extra-pyramidal system runs directly/indirectly from the motor cortex to the lower motor neuron. Fibers normally cross/don't cross the spinal cord before reaching their target.
What is a unit of action?
What is a motor program
Give one way of defining separations in motor programs
Describe a Direct (online) feedback system labeling the main components
Give three ways we choose a motor program.
Define antiphase, is this easier or harder than inphase?
Define inphase, is this easier or harder than antiphase movements?
What is colour?
We have 4 types of receptors in the eye, but what are they?
What is trichromacy?
A voluntary movement of your leg would pass through your ______ system. A reflex movement of your leg when you stand on a pin passes though your _____ system.
Give two points of movement error
What is a generalised motor program, and give two reasons we have them?
When considering is a movement fits into a generalised motor program, what factors should we consider. give an example of a set of skills which may use a generalised motor program.
When we stimulate the brain we can use ___ or ___ but the second would hurt too much so we stick with with first.
Describe the speed accuracy trade off.
Give the main positive and negative of Direct feedback.
What law is linked with the speed accuracy trade off?
What is the equation for fits law?
Describe a graph to show the differences between Fitts law in movements of the arm, wrist and finger. Use the axis Time per movement (m/s) and Log2
Apart from the body part used give two other factors which affect the speed accuracy relationship.
What are sounds?
What is the collection of bones in the inner ear called?
Describe an internal feedback system, labeling the key components.
What does the final ossicle bone join onto, and how does this allow it to transmit sound?
What condition in later life can reduce moment of the ossicles?
What is the role of the round window?
What is opponency theory?
What is the name of the specific structure that does the hearing within the cochlea?
What is the pitch placement theory? Give details on where high pitched and low pitched noise are heard.
What are the three sections of the cochlea called, and what fluid does each of them contain?
What is the difference between opponency theory and trichromacy theory?
Within the organ of corti we have a Tectorial membrane and basilar membrane. firstly which is onto and which is on the bottom, and describe how their ability to pivot allows us to hear sound.
What is the equation for the power law of practice?
Why are lumbar punctures performed on the lumbar vertebrae not higher?
Slipped disk results in ... being crushed causing pain and motor problems
What proves that lower level control isn't destroyed just turned off when higher control is present?
What is the difference between addictive mixing and subtractive mixing?
Describe the difference in performance after practice in 3 situations, 'self set goals', 'experimentor set goals' and 'do your best goals' (Weinberg, 1994)
Why is it important to inhibit lower command if we also have higher commands present.
What is the difference between low level command and higher command?
We percive vertical/horizontal lengths as longer due to ____ up-scaling.
An action potential occurs when voltage reaches a ____ value. ____ channels open, causing a influx of ___ ions, causing polarization. ___ ions then move out of the cell causing _____.
Out of the cone cells, which colour is the least sensitive?
Reflexes are hard wired, and involve at least __ muscles. Give an example of when more muscles would be controlled in a reflex.
The brain has 3 sections, what section is for the most complex, middle and least complex?
Define the absolute refractory period and the relative refractory period.
How many layers does the Cerebral Cortex have? what does each layer contain?
Is the cerebral cortex localised or general? Explain your answer
Define frequency modulation.
What does the Diencephalon contain? What do each of these sections do?
The longer the rest the better/worse the performance.
What does the limbic system do?
Describe the difference in error rate for a variable practice group and a constant practice group in the following conditions; standard activity, immediate varied activity, delayed varied activity.
How does the brain code for our moments?
Define temporal and spacial summation.
What does the cerebellum do?
What nerve fibers pass through the brain stem before leaving or entering the brain?
Give the main parts of a nerve cell and where you would find them.
What is the role of the Reticular formation?
What part of the brain is essential for life? why?
Define blocked practice
What is the difference between a nerve and a neuron?
What does the optical disk do?
what plays an important role in speeding up nerve conduction?
Name the parts of the eye going from the white outsides to the black inside.
Define random practice
Where does the most refraction occur in the eye?
Describe how new nerves are directed to the correct position.
What does an opthalmoscope allow us to do?
What does glasses do to help us see correctly?
Axonal proteins are mainly synthesised in the ...
They are then transported up the ___ to the ____ __ __ ____.
Why is it necessary for us to move ours eyes a lot for a full range of vision?
The growth of new synapses is called...
What is the scientific name for a blind spot? Why cant we see anything from this point?
CNS/PNS can regenerate if damaged, however there are normally only one/several routes within the nervious system to reach the same goal
What is the scientific name for good light and poor light?
Which type of receptor do we have the most of?
Describe the basic steps of phototransdution, including why light causes a decrease in sensitivity of our eyes to light.
What is the process of adapting to different light levels chemically?
What is information?
We adapt to the dark very fast/slow, while we adapt to the light very fast/slow
what are the two types of adaption? Explain what each of them are.
The more outcomes we have for a question, the more ___ it is said to have.
What does a Snellen chart do?
Noise is increased _____. To decrease noise we reduce _____.
Explain the consent of only transmitting a small audio frequency on a telephone.
How much information can the average nerve transmit?
If we have such a small focus point, how do we create a clear image of large objects?
Define knowledge of performance
Define knowledge of results, and give some reasons it isn't a good indicator of personal performance.
What is augmented feedback?
Why does myelination have not effect on the time constant?
What times two can augmented feedback be given to performers?
When a nerve cell is myelinated, conduction is know as...
What ion is in higher concentration in the endolymph?
Sodium ions have a ____ feedback system so are know to be ______.
Potassium ions have ____ feedback system so are known to be _____.
Draw a graph to show the sharpening response to pitch detection.
Why do we have synapses?
Over what range is the human ear most effective? (provide units)
Why does leakage from action potential not effect the transmission?
Why do we use chemical synapses not electrical ones?
Give the three types of synapse, and give where each of them link to.
If a patient has a stroke and they are unable to create speak, which part of the brain would be most likely to have been effected?
What is short sight scientifically called?
What is long sighted scientifically called?
Myopia is where the eye is too long/short. We resolve this problem using a concave/convex lens
Hypermetropia is when the eye is too short/long. We resolve this using a concave/convex lens.