What are the 4 advantages that an internal skeleton has over an external skeleton?
What does a long bone consist of?
Why can cartilage on bone be infected?
How does the human skeleton turn from cartilage (when baby) to bone?
What is ossification?
Why are older people more prone to fractures?
What do synovial joints (like ball and socket and hinge joints) consist of?
What are antagonistic muscles and give an example
In a synovial joint, what does the synovial fluid do?
In a synovial joint, what does the synovial membrane do?
In a synovial joint, what does the cartilage do?
In a synovial joint, what does the ligaments do?
What is raising and lowering the forearm an example of?
Why do most animals need a blood circulatory system?
What animal has a single circulatory system?
What does a double circulatory system require and why?
What does a single circulatory system require?
What improvement did Harvey make on Galen's theories on the circulatory system?
What is the definition of the cardiac cycle?
Explain briefly the cardiac cycle
What hormone increases your heart rate and why was it useful for our ancestors?
What is a pacemaker?
What is an electrocardiogram?
What does the sinoatrial node (SAN) do?
What does the atrioventricular node (AVN) do?
What happens next?
What do they mean by a 'hole in the heart' and how can this be corrected?
Why is a 'hole in the heart' bad?
What's different between the circulatory system of a unborn baby and a new born baby?
What does a heart with damaged or weak valves have?
How can a blocked coronary artery be sorted out?
How can major heart problems be sorted out?
What are the positive things about heart surgery?
What are the negatives of heart surgery?
What does blood donation involve?
What chemicals do doctors use to prevent the blood clotting?
What are the people with the inherited condition, haemophilia, at risk of?
What is the rhesus system?
What is the process of blood clotting called?
Explain the process of clotting
What is agglutination and when does it take place?
Why can agglutination be life-threatening?
What can blood group A donate to?
What can blood group B donate to?
What can blood group AB donate to?
What can blood group O donate to?
What group/s can blood group A receive from?
What group/s can blood group B receive from?
What group/s can blood group AB receive from?
What group/s can blood group O receive from?
What type of habitats are amphibians restricted to?
What do amphibians use to obtain oxygen and what can this lead to?
Why don't fish gills work in air?
What happens when a human breathes in?
What happens when a human breathes out?
why does diffusion occur in lungs?
how are exchange surfaces adapted for their function?
What are the readings on a spirometer?
What happens when you get lung cancer?
3 symptoms of asthma
How is the respiratory system different for fish (than it is for humans)? What does this mean?
What happens during an asthma attack?
Name 2 reasons why physical digestion is important
Give 2 forms of physical digestion
How and where is starch (carbohydrate) digested?
How and where is protein digested?
How and where is fat digested?
How does pH vary with enzymes?
What does the gall bladder store and what does it do with it?
What do food molecules need to be able to do?
Where do the digested carbohydrates and protein molecules go?
Where do the digested fat molecules go?
6 adaptations of small intestine
What are excess and amino acids broken down into and where?
Where does blood containing waste go?
Where does blood not containing waste go?
What does each kidney have and how does waste leave the kidney?
What happens when the blood flows through the kidney under high pressure?
What else does the kidney do?
What is a nephron?
What is a glomerulus?
What other regions does a nephron have?
What is a dialysis machine and what does it do?
What does dialysis fluid contain and why?
How is urea made?
What happens when you have a large drink of water?
What happens when you don't drink enough?
What happens when you drink too much water?
Why must carbon dioxide be removed from the body?
How are carbon dioxide levels maintained?
What are the 4 sex hormones used in the female menstrual cycle and where are they produced?
What controls the negative feedback system for the menstrual cycle?
What happens to the levels of oestrogen and progesterone if fertilisation doesn't occur?
When does menstruation occur (in terms of oestrogen and progesterone levels)?
Why, when an egg is fertilised, do progesterone levels stay high and no FSH is produced?
How can artificial sex hormones control fertility?
Name 2 reasons for male and 2 reasons for female infertility
Name 6 treatments for infertility
Which 3 treatments have big medical issues?
4 problems with IVF
Name 2 ways in which baby abnormalities can be checked
What are the problems with foetal screening?
What can help increase growth?
What are extremes of height caused by?
What are the 5 main stages of growth?
Why are babies' growth usually monitored for the first 6 months?
Where is the human growth hormone produced?
5 factors for life expectancy growth
How does this life expectancy increase effect people on a personal level?
How does this life expectancy increase effect people on a national level?
Why are their limited organs?
4 problems with mechanical replacements
What can living donors donate?
3 things that a dead donor can donate
Problems with dead donors
What 2 things are needed to ensure a successful transplant?
What is an opt-out system?
A problem with immuno-suppressive drugs