Humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity are two branches of adaptive immunity. What mediates humoral immunity? What are the targets of humoral immunity?
What is the difference between the recognition phase and effector phase of humoral immunity?
A primary response is generated when an antigen is first encountered. Second, exposure to that same antigen is known as the secondary exposure. What are the key differences between primary and secondary responses? What accounts for these differences?
What is affinity maturation?
What genetic process drives affinity maturation?
What is the name of the process by which immature B cells expressing immunoglobulins with a high affinity for self-antigens are restricted from becoming mature?
What type of cell stimulates B cell clonal expansion, isotype switching, affinity maturation, and differentiation into memory B cells?
What are the two types of cells that may become activated B cells?
Will a single antigen with a single epitope activate a B cell?
How do B-cell and T-cell receptors differ with respect to the native form (ie, three dimensional shape) of the antigen?
B-cell proliferation, early antibody secretion, and isotype switching occur in which area of the lymphoid follicle?
B-cell affinity maturation and isotype switching occur in which area of the lymphoid follicle?
What processes can result from interaction of CD40 on B cells with CD40L on T cells?
Steps in B cell maturation
The Th-2 subset of T cells, which produce IL-4, cause B cell expression of what isotype?
TGF-B causes B cell expression of what isotype?
What cytokine expressed by t cells also cause isotype switching to IgA?
What is a hapten? How are antibodies generated against haptens?
When in conjunction with TCR-MHC2 binding, interaction of the CD28 on the T cell with B7 on a B cell or other APC results in what process in T-cell mediated immunity?
Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and humoral immunity are two aspects of adaptive immunity. What mediates CMI?
What is the major difference between how CMI and humoral immunity are elicited by antigen?
Cell-mediated immunity is mainly directed against what two major types of cells?
Persons with a deficiency in cell-mediated immunity are prone to which types of infections?
What are the two types of naive Th cells? What are their functions?
List the major steps in Th1 cell-mediated macrophage activation
Name the different types of APCs. What two signals are needed to activate a Th cell? What cytokine do APCs secrete to induce Th-1 cell differentiation?
Th1 cells migrate to source of antigen (infection) and activate macrophages that present the antigen of interest through what three signals?
What are the functions of macrophages?
What functions of macrophages are enchanced in T-cell activation of macrophages?
Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, type IV) is the only cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction. Describe it and name some examples.
Describe the histopathology of a granuloma. In what instances are granuloma produced?
Activated macrophages in a granuloma are also called epitheloid cells due to morphological changes. What cytokine triggers this change?
How are Tc cells activated?
How do activated Tc cells recognize infected cells?
How do activated Tc cells kill infected cells?