Five reasons why we should study Primates
What is an a priori prediction?
true or false: Correlation equals causation
How do primates serve as an UMBRELLA in conservation?
How often do Orangutangs give birth? How important is each individual member?
What is the most likely way that Platrryhines entered the New World(central and south America)?
All darts hit one area, but not on the dart board.
All darts hit the same area and on the dart board.
All darts hit the dart board but in different areas.
The darts do not hit the dart board and are all over the place.
True or False: The size of brains is all primates are the same.
True or false: Under a comparative study we can uncover broad primate behavior patterns.
What is evolutionary Ecology?
What does it mean when we say science is empirical based, impartial, and falsifiable?
This type of plant grows in the tropics. It starts out as an epiphyte that grow downward into the soil and eventually engulf the host tree, which dies.
Which of the following is not a generalized characteristic of primates?
A. Prehensile Tail
B. Shortened snout
C. Underdeveloped olfaction
D. Eyes rotated forwards
True or False: Plant Masting(plants giving nuts all at once) is related to El Nino(warming of the ocean).
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Prosimii?(lemurs, lorises, galagos)
A. wet nose
B. tooth comb
C. grooming claw
D. post orbital enclosure
Explain in a few words what zoochory is.
In terms of seed dispersal, Anemochory serves as what kind of mechanism?
Do all primates have grasping hands and feet? Opposable thumbs?
What are the benefits from having eyes rotated forward in primates?
true or false: Anthropoides have wet noses and longer snouts.
Where in world can you find Catarrhini?
Where in the world can you find Platarrhini?
True or false: Catarrhini(Old world monkeys) have the dental formula 2123?
True or false: Cercopithecoidea have bilophodant molars while Hominoidea have Y-5 Molars
What are leaf eaters in Africa called? Taxonomy
What are the leaf eaters called that can be found in Asia?
What does the primary diet of red leaf monkeys(Maroon Langur) consist of? (think about it.......) Also, what is their primary mating/social system?
What are the five families that can be found in the superfamily Hominoidea?
What Families make up the great apes and where can we find them in the world?
True or False: Primates live in the tropics
What are the Six defining traits of the tropical rainforest?
What are Epiphytes?
in terms of seed dispersal, what does Barochory do?
What is Hydrochory?
Explain what phenology is?
Why is the preservation of non-human primates important for ecology?
List and describe 4 out of the 7 discussed characteristics:
T/F: Primates generally have longer lives compared to other mammals?
T/F: Haplorrhines have a reflective layer behind the retina called the tapetum lucidum?
Large primates generally have larger groups than smaller primates
Among the Hominoidea, which species is the most sexually dimorphic?
What are the 4 reasons we should study primates?
what is an umberalla species?
T/F: all scientif measurements have associated error
TRUE/FALSE? More efficient travelers should leave patches more quickly.
True or False? A new item of a primates diet is added if it is LOWER in net energy than the net energy of the normal diet.
TRUE//FALSE? Optimal Foraging theory assumes that animals forage in a way to maximize their E/T(Net rate of energy uptake)
TRUE/FALSE? According to the diet breadth model Feeding and Searching are mutually exclusive.
In an environment with ____ _____Patches, the primate will spend LESS time per patch. (HIGH/LOW QUALITY)
true/false: Sumatra in general, has much more food available then Borneo.
When do climbers (trees that attach onto other trees) become an important food source in relation to the forest type of trees that mast?
What are the four ways that seeds can be dispersed?
what are the 3 characteristics that Primates have that distinguish them from other animals? (derived traits away from mammals)
Do folivores thrive in peat swamps? yes/no
In the context of seed dispersal systems, what does hydrochory mean?
True/false: New world monkeys and old world monkeys share a common dentition formula
What are 2 differences between the primates in the infraorders platyrrhini and catarrhini (OWM vs NWM)
According to the geographical definition, the tropics can be defined as all of the following except: A) 23°N to 23°S of the equator
B) Between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn
C) Having an average temperature above 64°F
D) A cold place
E) Having variable rainfall, although usually averaging 100mm of rain each month
True/False: Primates have a short juvenile period compared to other mammals
What are some advantages of forward-facing eyes?
Describe the various ways in which seeds can be dispersed and how animals, such as primates, contribute to the process.
In what range are the tropics found in? A. Near the Equator
B. Above the Tropic of Cancer (23* 27' N)
C. Between (23* 27' N) and (23* 27' S)
D. Above Tropic of Capricorn (23* 27' S)
Which of these is not a form of seed dispersal?
Which of the following characteristic(s) describe primates within the infraorder Catarrhini?
a. are located within the Asian and African continents
b. have a 2133 dental formula
c. have narrow nostrils
d. both b and c
e. both a and c
What is one characteristic of tropical forests?
a. Rich soil
b. Very poor soil
c. little diversity
d. well studied
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a primate?
a) stereoscopic vision
b) post-orbital closure
d) tactile pads on the toes and fingers
e) complex brain
true/false: The crown of a tree includes roots.
What two primate species are the closest relative to humans?
Which of the following are common characteristics of the primates in the suborder Anthropoidea?
A: Smaller noses, All nails, and post orbital closure
B: Dry noses, tooth comb, and all nails
C: Smaller noses, post orbital closure, and grooming claw
D: Dry noses, no tooth comb, and longer snouts
The poor soil quality in peat swamp forests has driven some plant species to invest heavily in herbivory defense mechanisms. This is one of the reasons that peat swamps are described as _______ quality habitats.
True or false: Hemiepiphyte plant species are always parasitic.
Anthropoids are divided into two categories: ____________ , which include New World Monkeys, and _____________ , which includes Old World Monkeys.
True or false:
Anemochory is the dispersal of seeds by gravity, while barochory is the dispersal of seeds by wind.
True or False?
The Bornean white-bearded gibbon is socially polygamous and subsists primarily as a folivore.
True or false: The rain forest's alarming disappearance due to the desire of agricultural growth results in a higher crop yield for farmers because of the rain forests abundance of rich soil.
True or False:
There are no exceptions to the Jarman-Bell Principle.
Species adapt to processing ______ rather than preferred foods.
T/F: Staple fallback foods are utilized only during a period of fruit scarcity but which never comprise 100% of the diet.
Name one vitamin that is water soluble:
T/F: Plant secondary compounds (i.e. tannins) are involved in plant metabolism, growth and reproduction.
What is an example of a plant secondary compound? What is its function?
What are the 2 components of primate food?
Leaf monkeys have teeth with __________, specialized for chewing leaves
a) low, rounded cusps (for grinding)
b) high, sharp cusps, with thin enamel
c) high, sharp cusps, with thick enamel
e) sharp incisors
What aspect of the gut is especially important for digesting gums?
What is the purpose for secondary compounds in plants?
Which of the following is a bad source of primate food consumption?
D) Digestion inhibitors
E) Both B and D
What is Zoochory?
What are three main sources of protein for primates?
Thin molar enamel and high cusps are characteristic of what kind of eater?
What is 1 characteristic of gum eaters?
What are leaf eating primate's guts characterized by?
Smaller primates can handle toxins better than larger primates. Why?
A primate's digestive tract is primarily influenced by its (preferred food/fallback food)
Plants want to deter animals from eating
D. all of the above
E. A and B Plants want to deter animals from eating
D. all of the above
E. A and B
T/F Is there such a thing as a 100% frugiverous monkey?
Short answer: What are fallback foods?
What polysaccharides are used for structural functions?
D. A and C
E. B and C
In relation to the Jarman-Bell Principle, explain why an insect-eating primate would more likely be found as a solitary animal in comparison to a grass-eating primate. (SHORT ANSWER)
Why are primate species adapted for processing their fallback foods and not their preferred foods?
A. There are more toxins in fallback foods that primates need to be able to process.
B. Historically, their fallback foods used to be their preferred foods.
C. Typically, preferred foods are easy to process and do not require specialized processing abilities.
D. Both A and C.
Fill in the Blank:
_________ (Rarely/Commonly) found in mature leaves, unripe fruits, and seeds, ________ (toxins/tannins/anti-feedants), are metabolically cheap and will _______ (reduce/increase) digestibility
Which of the following is not a fat-soluble vitamin that primates need to acquire from their diet?
A. Vitamin E
B. Vitamin B
C. Vitamin K
D. Vitamin A
T/F species are specially adapted to processing preferred foods.
What is the purpose of tannins in plant matter, and how do they function? (short answer)
Why are primates specialized to consume fallback foods, rather than preferred ones?
What is the difference between micronutrients and macronutrients?
True or False
Colobine monkeys are known to be aggressive relative to other primate species.
What is an example of a micronutrient?
C. vitamin A
Which of the following tooth adaptations differ between folivores and frugivores?
a. Shearing crest height.
b. Molar enamel thickness.
c. Both lack incisors.
d. A and B only
What kind of individuals survive "crunch" periods (periods of resource scarcity).
What kind of individuals survive "crunch" periods (periods of resource scarcity).
Sharp incisors and sharp cusps corresponds to which of the following:
T/F: More efficient travelers should leave patches more quickly.
True or False.
A new item is added to a diet if the net energy of the new item is less than the net energy of the average diet.
True or False: An item that is abundant in an environment is going to be consumed by a primate.
What is optimality theory? (short answer)
Name at least 2 of the marginal value theorem assumptions.
**** True or False:
The maximum benefit to cost ratio occurs when the benefit curve and the cost curve intersect.
Fill in the blank:
Foragers should________ when the environment is unproductive and ________ when environment is productive.
According to the Marginal Value Theorem, patch residence time depends on patch ____ and patch ____.
True/False: It is an assumption of the marginal value theorem that within a prey type, handling and search time are constants.
According to the diet breadth model, a new prey item can be added into an existing diet, as long as:
a. Net energy sustains daily life
b. Search time is less than the search time of normal prey
c. Net energy of new item is equal or greater than net energy of normal items
d. a & b
A low search time and high handling time results in foragers abiding by a _ diet.
What are some reasons why many studies on primate feeding selectivity were limited? (short answer)
Explain when an individual should be a generalist and when an individual should be a specialist. (SHORT ANSWER)
What factors does patch residence time depend on?