Ag- Any substance that may be recognised as foreign
What is this, and what is it for?
Crossing the placenta
What is Ig M use for?
Bound to B cells
The Rhesus positive allele is...
Homozygous dd has the potential to produce Anti-D in what circumstances
Sensitisation- binding of Ig to individual blood cell
Agglutination is visible when
The Ig binds
A lattice is formed
The blood cells lyse
Which of the following RBC's contain the H substance (L-Fucose)
Type AB has what added to the H substance?
Which of the following is the 'Universal Receiver'?
How do blood grouping cards work?
Tiny columns of small beads with Ig's bound
If blood agglutinates due to Ig's, it cannot pass through column
If blood agglutinates due to Ig's, it sinks to the bottom of the column
1 in 40 people have Ig's other than ABO and Rhesus
How many Ig's (other than ABO and Rhesus) can cause haemolytic reactions
3 Cells are brought in as controls- why?
Between the three of them, they cover all 20 Ig's
Then the patient plasma is added, and the reaction studied
If the plasma reacts to any of the 20 Ig's, what happens?
They're tested against 10 donors (process of elimination)
They're tested against 20 donors (process of elimination)
They're tested against 15 donors (process of elimination)
Pregnant women protect their fetuses by injecting Anti-D
What is cross matching?
The patients plasma is mixed with potential donor cells and the reaction studied after 40 mins
The patients RBC's are mixed with proteintial plasma and the reaction studied after 40 mins
Transfusions are necessary if >40% of blood is lost
What is an Exchange Transfusion?
Where all blood is taken out and replaced
Where two complimentary donors exchange blood
Exchange transfusion is used for babies with HDN
Why are antibodies the issue in blood transfusions?
They are much more abundant than RBC's
RBC's don't contain the MAC Class 1 marker that allows self cells to be identified
RBC reactions can be easily stopped
RBC's are stored in 120-200 ml quantities
1 unit of RBC's is expected to raise blood Hb by how much?
Blood is transfused over 2-3 hours
1 bag of RBC's costs how much?
Plasma has a shelf life of _ and a half life of _ once unfrozen
With plasma, Universal Donor's and Receivers are reversed
Plasma is dosed at 12-15ml/kg
Plasma also contains
A bag of plasma and clotting factors costs £40.00
Cryoprecipitate contains concentrated clotting factors and Ig's
Cryoprecipitate has a shelf life of _ at -30 degrees
When is cryoprecipitate added?
When fibrinogen is below 1g/l
When Factor V is below 5g/l
2 bags per dose
Platlets are stored at 22 degrees and cannot be refrigerated
Platelets have a shelf life of 7 days if...
it's kept agitated
it's kept frozen
it is stored in a vacuum
Platelets are given over 30 mins and increase blood count by 3-4 x 10^9
What is Aphoresis
Removal of a blood component
Removal of blood
Removal of body tissue
Platelets cost £20 a bag