Jock Young - developed Becker's ideas. In 1971 how did he put Becker's ideas into practice?
What did he argue?
Define deviancy amplification.
Define cultural capital.
Chamberliss: Saints and roughnecks.
What did this study focus on?
What did Chamberliss claim were the consequences of the roughnecks being labelled by society were?
Social action theory: Howard Becker - what did he argue about deviance?
What did Becker also introduce the idea of? Define
Baldwin and Bottoms - what did they examine the process of?
When does this process occur? What might this be due to?
Explain the process in more detail...
Wilson and Kelling: what did they argue?
Privatization of public space: what is this argument? What does this mean?
Nocturnal economy: Hobbs and Lister, what did they focus on?
What will this lead to?
What has been estimated?
What are four crimes that do not involve financial gain?
Albert Cohen 1955
What type of theorist was he?
Who did he claim that delinquent behaviour was most likely to develop among?
Why was this?
Cloward and Ohlin 1961, developed Cohen's ideas, what did they argue?
what did he argue was the main reason why many working class boys get into trouble?
Name three of the focal concerns
Name the two most infamous gangs
What colour did the Crips identify themselves with?
and what colour did the bloods identify themselves with?
Why did they stop identifying themselves in this way?
Nightingale (1993) Who did he study? and where? What do gang members actually want to achieve - but can't? How are they excluded? what are they therefore forced to do?
David Downes (1966) What did he find? What did he find little evidence of?
Bennett and Holloway (2004)
Where and who did they study data from?
What did they find?
From this research what was estimated?
Who did he examine? How long did he conduct research for? And where?
What does he argue? What is the key factor that pushes someone into a gang?
What did he research? Where and when?
What did he find? What then did he argue?
Anne Campbell, who did she study? What did she focus on?
Hunt (2001) Who did he interview? Although Hunt found that the 'homegirls' committed crimes, what did they also do (or not do)?
David Matza (1964) What does he argue that research into gangs is? What does he argue? What do many young men do? and why do they do this? Why do they get caught?
What do social action theorists argue in terms of criminals? What do they call this?
Define environmental theory
Shaw and McKay, When and where did these American sociologists conduct their research? What did they do? What did their results reveal?
Sutherland. What did he introduce the concept of? What does this mean? What does Sutherland claim?
Morris, where did he study? What did he argue?
Define delinquent behaviour
Define a subculture