What hormones influence growth?
What are the functions of thyroid hormones?
What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?
What are the metabolic effects on growth hormone?
In what periods of growth are the effects of growth hormone most effective?
When does growth in length of bone stop?
What are sex hormones responsible for?
What are sex hormones mediated by?
What are the effects of sex hormones?
How does insulin contribute to growth?
What hormone inhibits growth if it is at a higher than normal level?
What are its effects?
How to PTH and vitamin contribute to growth?
What are the effect of excess growth hormone in:
What is acromegaly?
What is calcitonin released in response to?
What effect does calcitonin have?
What hormones affect bone?
What cells synthesise and secrete collagen fibres forming a matrix (later mineralised by calcium salts)
What are osteocytes?
What do low [Ca2+] cause?
What is a disorder causes by vitamin D deficiency and what are the symtpoms?
What is a cause of hypoparathyroidism?
What are the functions of calcium?
What are the hormones involved in calcium homeostasis?
What is parathyroid hormone released in response to?
What are the effects of parathyroid hormone?
What do baroreceptors detect?
What do baroreceptors do in response to low blood pressure?
What does the decrease in baroreceptor AP firing cause?
How do medium term responses restore blood volume?
What promotes release of ANH?
What are the two disorders of ADH secretion and give the outcome of each.
What is the effect of K+ on nerve?
What effect does increasing [ECF] K+ levels have on nerve?
How do K+ salts claim to desensitise 'hypersensitive dentine'?
How does the rate of glomelular filtration respond to decrease in blood fluid volume
What hormone promotes thirst?
Where are plasma proteins released and how long does this process take?
What are the two things in long term response that are needed in order to replace blood constituents
What hormone controls the production of red blood cells (erythopoiesis)?
Where is erythopoietin released from?
What does the kidney release erythopoietin in response to?
What organ does erythropoietin affect?
What is shock?
What is shock associated with?
What is hypovolaemic shock?
What is a type of low resistance (distributive) shock?
What causes low resistance (distributive) shock?
What is cardiogenic shock?
What does the effect of stress depend on?
What are the three stages of the General Adaptation Syndrome?
What are the two hormones involved in stress?
What does adrenaline to the effect of the sympathetic ns response?
Where is adrenaline stored and released?
What effect does stress have on the sympathetic nervous system?
Where are glucocorticoids released?
Have hormone may have harmful effects if secretion is persistently high?
What are the effects of cortisol?
How does cortisol possess an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant actions?
What are the four physiological responses to blood loss and their function?
What are the three responses of the immediate response to stop bleeding?
What are the effects of the vascular response?
What is the process of the platelet response?
What does corticosteroid treatment suppress?
What enzyme catalyses the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin?
The effects of stress are greater when:
What vitamin is needed for the synthesis of several clotting factors?
What two pathways activate the coagulation pathway?
What activates the intrinsic pathway in plasma response?
What activates the extrinsic pathway of the plasma response?
What enzyme is needed to break down fibrin in soluble fibrin fragments?
What should happen to stress response in a healthy individual with persistent exposure to the stressor?
What are the effects if individual's adaptation to stress fails?
What is the function of the glomerulus?
What is the function of the proximal convoluted tubule?
What is the function of the distal convoluted tubule?
What is the function of the loop of henle?
What is the function of the collecting ducts?
What are the three vasculate structures of the glomerulus?
What pressure favours filtration in the glomerulus?
What pressure opposes the filtration in the glomerulus?
How is the net filtration pressure (EFP) calculated?
How much (as %) does the proximal tubule reabsorb of the glomerular filtrate?
What sort of molecules are absorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
What hormone controls the reabsorption of water in the distal convoluted tubule?
What does ADH effect the reabsorption of water in the collecting ducts?
What is the acending limb of the loop of henle permeable to?
What is the descending limb of the loop of henle permeable to?
What needs to move first in order for water to follow in the kindeys?
What promotes the secretion of ADH
What does the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system promote?
In order for the reabsorption of Na+ in the distal convoluted tubule what ions need to be exchanged?
What hormone promotes the release of aldosterone?
What enzyme convert angiotensinogen to angiotensin I?
What does atrial natriuretic hormone promote?
What hormones are produced by the islets of langerhans and which specific cells are responsible for the production of each one?
What is insulin released in response to?
What is the function of insulin?
What does insulin promote the formation of?
What are the three classifications of hormones?
What does insulin promote the formation of?
What nerve activity promotes the secretion of insulin?
What are the two sub-groups of non-steroid peptide hormones and give an example for each.
What hormones inhibit the secretion of insulin?
What is glucagon released in response to?
How are peptide hormones usually produced?
What does glucagon promote?
What is an example of a steroid hormone?
Give an example of non-steroidal amino acid derivate hormones?
What is glycogenlysis?
How are hormones transported?
What is gluconeogenesis?
What inhibits the secretion of glucagon?
What hormone inhibits the secretion of both glucagon and insulin?
What is a second messenger system?
Where do steroid hormones bind to their receptors?
Describe the action of hormones in general.
What carriers steroid hormones in the blood?
What does the stimulation of a steroid hormone and its target cell receptor produce?
How do non-steroid hormones work?
What increases the sensitivity of a target cell to a hormone?
What is the term to describe the increase and decrease in hormone receptors?
How do hormones from the hypothalamus travel to the posterior pituitary gland?
How are hormones produced in the hypothalamus passed to the anterior pituitary gland?
What are the hypothalamic hormones?
What are the anterior pituitary hormones?
What hormone is released by the adrenal cortex?
What is the effect of FSH?
What is the effect of LH?
What hormone affects the thyroid to make it release thyroid hormones?
What two hormones affect the release of Growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland?
What are the effects of the release of prolactin?
What are the two hormones released by the posterior pituitary gland?
What does the hypothalamus control?
What is negative feedback?
How is ADH transported to kindeys?
What is the function of ADH?
What is the effect of oxytocin?
Name the other endocrine glands (exclud. hypothalamus and PT and AT)
What hormones are released by the thyroid gland?
What cells produce calcitonin in thyroid gland?
What is the effect of T3?
What is T3 essential for?
What are disorders caused by under secretion of thyroid hormones?
What disorders are caused by the oversecretion of thyroid hormones?
What hormone is produce by the parathyroid gland?
What is the function of the parathyroid hormone?
What do the islets of lslets of Langerhans look like at a histological level?