Which of the following best describes the current emphasis in the field of physical geography?
tracking changes in the world’s biodiversity
collecting and cataloguing facts about natural phenomena on the earth
understanding how Earth’s systems interact to produce natural phenomena
Geography is described as
a physical science
an Earth science
a human science
a spatial science
Which of the following correctly describes the behavior of a system with positive feedback?
It will not respond at all to a change of input.
It will respond to a change in input by moving further from its equilibrium condition.
It will respond to a change in input moving towards its equilibrium condition.
There is not enough information to tell because we do not know the nature of the system components.
Which of the following comes first in the scientific method?
development of governing laws
development of a hypothesis
Which of the following most accurately characterizes the goal of geography?
understanding why a place has the characteristics that it does.
memorization of the imports and exports of a country
the production and analysis of maps
memorization of the names and places on world and regional maps
Which of the following best describes the value of a theory in the scientific method?
It has little value because it is "just a theory".
It always represents a negative feedback in the process.
It stimulates continued observation and testing.
It represents established and unquestionalble fact.
In the system diagram above, if Component A increases, what will happen to Component C?
It will not change.
It will decrease.
It will increase.
It will explode.
In the system diagram, if an initial input to the system causes component A to increase, what will happen to component A after the input has traveled through the system one time?
It will change in the same way as component C.
It will increase further.
In the system diagram, what is the term for the relationship between Component A and Component B?
a negative feedback
a positive coupling
a positive feedback
a negative coupling
Which of the following is incorrect?
Earth represents a vast interconnected system.
Earth represents a closed system in terms of matter.
Earth is constantly receiving new resources and matter.
Earth represents an open system in terms of energy.
When a system suddenly jumps to a new equilibrium level, we say the system has reached
a feedback loop.
an equilibrium shift.
The scientific method includes both positive and negative feedback.
Which of the following terms best identifies the focus of physical geography?
In the lake system diagram, if an input to the system causes lake level to increase initially, what will happen to the lake level after the input has traveled through the system one time?
There is not enough information to tell.
In the lake system diagram, if shoreline distance decreases, what will happen to lake surface area?
It will stay the same.
It will reach steady-state equilibrium.
What type of feedback is represented by the lake system diagram example?
both positive and negative feedback
Which of the following represents a body of facts that is specific to geography?
None of these; geography is governed more by method and approach than a specific body of facts.
With regards to matter, Earth can be essentially considered
a closed system
an infinite system
a non-equilibrium system
an open system
What is the usual result of the scientific method?
a need for continued observation and testing
an established set of unquestionable facts
a bunch of numbers
both new knowledge and a need for continued observation and testing.
The scientific method should be seen as a sequence with distinct starting and ending points.
Which of the following statements would best describe the emphasis in college-level geography in the United States?
Geography primarily studies the physical aspects of the Earth's surface.
Geography's main emphasis is on spatial arrangement and the explanationof why things are where they are.
Geography puts its greatest emphasis in learning where places are located.
Geography is basically a technical field primarily concerned with map-making.
Because geography uses elements from both the physical and human systems to explain the spatial distribution of various phenomena, we can call geography a(n) ___________ science.
Which of the following best describes physical geographers' current interest in human features and processes across the Earth?
They are strongly focused on human features or processes.
They are interested in the interactions between physical and human features and processes.
They are not concerned with human features or processes.
They are only interested in how physical features and processes control or limit human features and processes.
What is the generic term for any line that connects points of equal value on a map?
a rhumb line
Which of the following representative fractions represents the largest scale?
Which of the following would be used for overlay map analysis where two or more map layers are superimposed or integrated?
Most of the United States is located between which of the following pairs of parallels?
the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer
the Tropic of Cancer and the equator
the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn
the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle
Which of the following is an example of remote sensing?
advanced very high resolution radiometer
infared satellite imagery
an aerial photograph
Commercially available global positioning system receivers can currently be used to determine location to an accuracy of
10 meters or less
Which of the following would be most likely to be portrayed on a very large-scale map?
continents and oceans
individual streets in a town
Which of the following terms best describes the shape of the Earth?
Which of the following accurately describes the commonly used Mercator projection?
both conformal and cylindrical
all of these
If you are making a map that is likely to be photocopied and enlarged or shrunk by users, which type of scale would be best to include on your map?
a ratio scale
a conformal scale
a written scale
a graphic scale
a fractional scale
What is the term for the property of equal area on a map?
It is much easier to minimise distortion on a small-scale map.
If it is 6:00 a.m. Monday in Tokyo (140 degrees E Longitude), what time is it in Rio de Janeiro (40 degrees W Longitude)?
6:00 p.m. Monday
6:00 p.m. Tuesday
6:00 p.m. Sunday
6:00 a.m. Sunday
0° Longitude is also known as
the Prime Meridian
the International Date Line
the North Pole
the Tropic of Cancer
Which of the following is true regarding lines of latitude?
They are parallel to each other.
They run north to south.
They are used in measuring time changes.
They range from 0° to 180°.
They are called meridians.
Which of the following is true regarding time zones?
They are 15 degrees wide because Earth rotates through that distance in one hour.
They are split approximately down the middle by a central meridian.
They are based on distance from Greenwich, England.
all of these.
A scale given as "one centimeter to one kilometer" is an example of which type of scale?
Which of the following features would prove most difficult to map if the cartographer desired to preserve features of both equal area and true shape?
a bike trail through a park
Suppose that it is 11:30 p.m. Tuesday immediately west of the International Date Line. What is the time and day immediately east of the International Date LIne?
11:30 p.m. Monday
11:30 p.m. Tuesday
11:30 a.m. Monday
12:30 a.m. Monday
11:30 a.m. Tuesday
12:30 a.m. Tuesday
Suppose that it is 12:30 a.m. Wednesday immediately west of the International Date Line. What time is it immediately east of the International Date Line?
Which of the following features are typically represented on topographic maps?
Which of the following is a capability of a geographic information system?
data manipulation and analysis
map production with different information layers
electronic visualization of spatial analyses
The larger the scale of a map, the ______ the extent covered by the map and the _____ detail it provides.
Which of the following represents all Earth properties of area, shape, direction, proximity, and distance correctly?
Alber's equal-area conic projection
an oval projection
a world globe
Satellite images are based on
signals compiled by geographic information systems
digital data that are stored electronically and then transmitted to Earth by radio waves
signals compiled by global positioning system receivers
standard photographic film that is recovered after a satellite returns to Earth
holographic images created from laser-generated interference patterns
Earth's equator is an example of
a small circle
a prime meridian
a great circle
a line of longitude
Which of the following represents an application of global positioning systems?
tracking changes in the elevation of mountains
research in physical geography