In aerobic respiration, where is the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex located in Eukaryotes?
Inner membrane of mitochondria
Outer membrane of mitochondria
Matrix of mitochondria
Cytosol of the cell
Intermembrane space of mitochondria
What activates pyruvate dehydrogenase complex?
Glucagon in adipocytes and liver
What coenzymes are necessary for pyruvate dehydrogenase complex?
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, flavin adenine dinucleotide, coenzme A-SH, lipoic acid, thiamine pyrophosphate
PDH, NAD+, FAD, TPP, lipoic acid
pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoyl transacetylase, dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase
pyruvate decarboxylase, NAD+, FAD, TPP, lipoic acid
thiamine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, niacin, lipoic acid
From what FOUR vitamins are the coenzymes of the PDH complex derived?
Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B3, Vitamin B5
Niacin, Riboflavin, Vitamin C, lipoic acid
Vitamin B12, Vitamin B3, Vitamin B6, thiamine
Thiamine, Vitamin B1, Riboflavin, Vitamin B2
Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B1
In the TCA, which enzymes catalyze forward reactions producing NADH?
Aconitase, Fumarase, Syccinyl CoA synthetase, Isocitrate dehydrogenase
Isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinyl CoA synthetase, ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
Isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
Isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
Citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
Carbon dioxide is released in two reactions of the TCA. Which two substrates are produced as a result of the decarboxylation reaction?
Succinyl CoA, Succinate
alpha-ketoglutarate, Succinyl CoA
Which enzymes of the TCA are regulated?
ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, fumarase, aconitase, succinate dehydrogenase
Malate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase
Citrate dehydrogenase, isocitrate synthase, ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase
citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase
succinate thiokinase, citrate synthase, fumarase, aconitase
Which enzymes are regulated by Ca2+, ATP and NADH?
Citrate synthase, Isocitrate Dehydrogenase, ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase
Citrate synthase, ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase
Isocitrate Dehydrogenase, ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase
Citrate synthase, Isocitrate Dehydrogenase, ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
Citrate synthase, Isocitrate Dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase
What enzymes in the TCA are regulated by other substrates?
What enzymes of the TCA are regulated by ADP?
List a cause, symptom and metabolic effect, respectively, of Werneke-Korsakoff syndrome.
thiamine deficiency, memory loss, and lactic acidosis
riboflavin deficiency, wet beri-beri, increased ATP
niacin deficiency, heart failure, increase NADH
thiamine deficiency, cerebral hemorrhage, uncoupled ETC
riboflavin deficiency, ataxia (lack of voluntary muscle control), decreased pyruvate
What is the mechanism of arsenic poisoning?
Inhibits ketoglurate dehydrogenase by binding to alpha-ketoglutarate.
Inhibits dihydrolipoyl transacetylase by binding to lipoic acid.
Inhibits PDH by binding to TPP.
Inhibits pyruvate decarboxylase by binding to pyruvate.
Inhibits dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase by binding to FAD.
What enzyme is inhibited by fluorocitrate?
What vitamin deficiencies result in malfunctions of the tricarboxylic acid cycle?
Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B12
niacin, riboflavin, thamine, pantothenate, lipoic acid
NAD+, FAD, lipoic acid, coenzyme A, thiamine pyrophosphate
niacin, riboflavin, nicotinamide, malonate, vitamin B12
Niacin, vitamin B3, thiamine, vitamin B1, lipoic acid