Discovering Biology

Question 1 of 29

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Which of the following provides evidence for evolution?

Select one of the following:

  • direct observation of genetic changes in populations

  • sharing of characteristics between organisms

  • the fossil record

  • all of the above

Question 2 of 29

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In natural selection,

Select one of the following:

  • the genetic composition of the population changes randomly over time

  • new mutations are generated over time

  • all individuals in a population are equally likely to contribute offspring to the next generation

  • individuals that possess particular inherited characteristics consistently survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other individuals

Question 3 of 29

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Adaptive traits

Select one of the following:

  • are features of an organism that hinder its performance in its environment

  • are rare in most natural populations

  • are favored by natural selection

  • result from genetic drift

Question 4 of 29

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The fossil record shows that the first mammals evolved 220 million years ago. The supercontinent Pangea began to break apart 200 million years ago. Therefore, fossils of the first mammals should be found

Select one of the following:

  • on most if not all of the current continents

  • only in Antartica

  • on only one or a few continents

  • only in Africa

Question 5 of 29

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The fact that the flipper of a whale and the arm of a human both have five digits and the same set of bones can be used to illustrate that

Select one of the following:

  • genetic drift can cause the evolution of populations

  • organisms can share characteristics simply because the share a common ancestor

  • whales evolved from humans

  • humans evolved from whales

Question 6 of 29

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The Galapagos Islands provide examples of

Select one of the following:

  • microevolution only

  • macroevolution only

  • both micro- and macroevolutionary change

  • none of the above

Question 7 of 29

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Differences in survival and reproduction caused by chance events can cause the genetic makeup of a population to change randomly over time. This process is called

Select one of the following:

  • mutation

  • natural selection

  • macroevolution

  • genetic drift

Question 8 of 29

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The splitting of one species into two or more species is called

Select one of the following:

  • speciation

  • macroevolution

  • common descent

  • adaptation

Question 9 of 29

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Features of organisms that are related to one another through common descent are

Select one of the following:

  • convergent

  • homologous

  • divergent

  • analogous

Question 10 of 29

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Artificial selection is the process by which

Select one of the following:

  • Natural selection fails to act in wild populations

  • humans prevent natural selection

  • humans allow only organisms with specific characteristics to breed

  • humans cause genetic drift in domesticated populations

Question 11 of 29

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A population of 1,500 individuals has 375 individuals of genotype AA, 750 individuals of genotype Aa, and 375 individuals of genotype aa. The genotype frequencies for genotypes AA, Aa, and aa are

Select one of the following:

  • 0.33, 0.33, 0.33

  • 0.25, 0.50, 0.25

  • 0.375, 0.75, 0.375

  • 0.125, 0.25, 0.125

Question 12 of 29

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A population of toads has 280 individuals of genotype AA, 80 individuals of genotype Aa, and 60 individuals of genotype aa. What is the frequency of the a allele?

Select one of the following:

  • 0.24

  • 0.33

  • 0.14

  • 0.07

Question 13 of 29

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A study of a population of the goldenrod Solidago altissima finds that large individuals consistently survive at a higher rate than small individuals. Assuming size is and inherited trait, the lost likely evolutionary mechanism at work here is

Select one of the following:

  • disruptive selection

  • directional selection

  • stabilizing selection

  • natural selection, but it is not possible to tell whether it is disruptive, directional, or stabilizing

Question 14 of 29

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Use the Hardy-Weinberg equation (p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1) to solve the following problem: If the frequency of the A allele is 0.7 and the frequency of the a allele is 0.3, what is the expected frequency of the genotype Aa in a population that is not evolving?

Select one of the following:

  • Over time, a population of birds ranges in size from 10 to 20 individuals. If allele frequencies were observed to change in a random way from year to year, which of the following would be the most likely cause of the observed changes in gene frequency?

  • stabilizing selection

  • disruptive selection

  • genetic drift

  • mutation

Question 15 of 29

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Use the Hardy-Weinberg equation (p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1) to solve the following problem: If the frequency of the A allele is 0.7 and the frequency of the a allele is 0.3, what is the expected frequency of the genotype Aa in a population that is not evolving?

Select one of the following:

  • Over time, a population of birds ranges in size from 10 to 20 individuals. If allele frequencies were observed to change in a random way from year to year, which of the following would be the most likely cause of the observed changes in gene frequency?

  • stabilizing selection

  • disruptive selection

  • genetic drift

  • mutation

Question 16 of 29

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Two large populations of a species found in neighboring locations with different environments are observed to become genetically more similar over time. Which evolutionary mechanism is the most likely cause of this trend?

Select one of the following:

  • gene flow

  • mutation

  • natural selection

  • genetic drift

Question 17 of 29

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Two large populations of a species found in neighboring locations with different environments are observed to become genetically more similar over time. Which evolutionary mechanism is the most likely cause of this trend?

Select one of the following:

  • gene flow

  • mutation

  • natural selection

  • genetic drift

Question 18 of 29

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Assume that individuals of genotype Aa are intermediate in size and they leave more offspring than either AA or aa individuals do. This situation is an example of.

Select one of the following:

  • directional selection

  • disruptive selection

  • stabilizing selection

  • sexual selection

Question 19 of 29

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The process by which differences in inherited characteristics of individuals cause them to differ in their ability to get mates is most accurately called

Select one of the following:

  • natural selection

  • reproductive success

  • mate choice

  • sexual selection

Question 20 of 29

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The splitting of one species to form two or more species most commonly occurs

Select one of the following:

  • by sympatric speciation

  • by genetic drift

  • by allopatric speciation

  • suddenly

Question 21 of 29

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The time required for populations to diverge to form new species

Select one of the following:

  • varies from a single generation to millions of years

  • is always greater in plants than in animals

  • is never less than 100,000 years

  • is never more than 1,000 years

Question 22 of 29

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Adaptations

Select one of the following:

  • match organisms closely to their environment

  • are often complex

  • help the organism accomplish important functions

  • all of the above

Question 23 of 29

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Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers to reproduction have the effect of

Select one of the following:

  • reducing genetic differences between populations

  • increasing the chance of hybridization

  • preventing speciation

  • reducing or preventing gene flow between species

Question 24 of 29

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Evidence urges that sympatric speciation may have occurred or may be in progress in all of the following except

Select one of the following:

  • the apple maggot fly

  • squirrel on opposite sides of the Grand Canyon

  • cichlid fishes

  • polyploid plants (or their ancestors)

Question 25 of 29

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The diploid number of chromosomes in plant species A is 8; the diploid number in plants species B is 16. If plant species C originated when a hybrid between A and B spontaneously doubled its chromosome number, what is the most likely number of diploid chromosomes in C?

Select one of the following:

  • 8

  • 12

  • 24

  • 48

Question 26 of 29

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The diploid number of chromosomes in plant species A is 8; the diploid number in plants species B is 16. If plant species C originated when a hybrid between A and B spontaneously doubled its chromosome number, what is the most likely number of diploid chromosomes in C?

Select one of the following:

  • 8

  • 12

  • 24

  • 48

Question 27 of 29

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The biological species concept

Select one of the following:

  • can be applied to organisms that reproduce asexually

  • can be applied to fossil life forms

  • would classify two natural populations, A and B, as separate species if A and B are separated by a geographical barrier

  • would classify two natural populations, A and B, as separate species if A and B are unable to exchange genes even if they co-occur

Question 28 of 29

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The biological species concept

Select one of the following:

  • can be applied to organisms that reproduce asexually

  • can be applied to fossil life forms

  • would classify two natural populations, A and B, as separate species if A and B are separated by a geographical barrier

  • would classify two natural populations, A and B, as separate species if A and B are unable to exchange genes even if they co-occur

Question 29 of 29

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Lake Victoria cichlids

Select one of the following:

  • exhibit low rates of speciation compared to most other fishes

  • exhibit high rates of speciation because of polyploidy

  • have evolved into many species in part because females choose mates by specific color patterns that males display

  • have diverged into many species because females have different feeding behaviors than males

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Discovering Biology

adreelucas
Quiz by , created almost 3 years ago

Quiz on Discovering Biology, created by adreelucas on 20/02/2014.

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Created by adreelucas almost 3 years ago
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