The concept that describes opening a window into unfamiliar worlds that allows us to understand human behavior by placing it within its broader social context is called....
Sociological perspective (or imagination)
The social imperative
When sociologists group people into categories bases on their age, gender, educational level, job, income, they are trying to determine.....
The sociological perspective emphasizes how the social context influences people's lives, particularly how people are influenced by....
random chance events
inherited genetic structure
The notion that only the fittest members of society deserve to survive and that social programs to help the poor will ultimately weaken the social order is a doctrine known as....
The term "survival of the fittest." Which is a principle part of the concept of social Darwinism was coined by...
The first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard University, who spent his lifetime studying race relations in America and was one of the founders of the NAACP was...
W.E.B. Du Bois
Booker T. Washington
George Washington Carver
Mark views society as a system of interrelated parts, while John views society as composed of groups competing for scarce resources. Mark would be considered a (n)______ and John would be seen as a (an) __________
Symbolic interactionist; functionalist
applied sociologist; functionalist
basic sociologist; applied sociologist
functionalist; conflict theorist
According to Robert Merton, ____ are the intended beneficial consequences of people's actions.
Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material objects, and technology that are passed from one generation to the next by members of society describe_______.
Sociologists use the concept of "norms" to describe ________.
Standards by which people define what is socially desirable
Expressions of disapproval for violating socially acceptable behavior.
Ideas about what is true or false
Expectations or rules of behavior that develop from values
When a group has a distinctive away of looking at life, but at the same time its values and norms reflect the dominant culture of its society, the group would be considered a (n) ____.
Example of cultural relativism
Example of cultural diffusion
The sociologist who identified ten underlying core values of American society was _____.
John Jacob Natzke
The spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another refers to _____.
Within a few blocks in midtown Manhattan, you can purchase a bagel with cream cheese, a hot dog, a steak, a polish sausage, or a pizza, as well as chow mein, lamb curry, sushi, lasagna, felafels, chicken couscous, enchiladas, and a host of ethnic specialties. This range of culinary possibilities illustrates the process of ______.
In the "nature versus nurture" argument regarding socialization, the nurture" component refers to _____.
The social environment
What concept do sociologists refer to when they say that " society makes us human"?
The process by which we develop a sense of self, referred to as the " looking glass self", was developed by _____.
George Herbert Mead
William I. Thomas
Charles Horton Cooley
Robert K. Merton
The symbolic interactionist who taught at the University of Chicago and stressed that play was crucial to develpment of the concept of self was _________.
According to Piaget, the stage of development that is dominated by touching, listening, looking, and the inability to recognize cause and effect is the ______ stage.
In Kohlberg's theory of moral development, the stage in which the child has no sense of right or wrong and only personal needs is satisfied is the _______ stage.
In Freud's theory, what part of the personality represents the pleasure seeking aspect, demanding immediate fulfillment of basic needs such as attention, food, safety, and sex?
People and groups that influence our orientation ___ our self-concepts, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors- are called _______.
Agents of socialization
What term applies to the stages that people pass from birth to death, beginning with "childhood" and concluding with " the older years"?
Rites of Passage
The life course
stages of development
Another term used for the stage of development called transitional adulthood, which is between the ages of 18 and 29 is ____.
The middle years
The sandwich generation
In Amsterdam, a 21-year-old prostitute is scantily clothed, exhibiting her attributes in a storefront, smiling at potential patrons as they walk by. Based on this mental image, which statement best describes what is in progress?
This is an example of social interaction
a misdemeanor is being committed
The prostitute is guilty of indecent exposure
This is a classic example of macrosociology
What two sociological perspectives are most linked to macrosociology?
symbolic interactionism and functionalism
functionalism and the conflict perspective
the conflict perspective and symbolic interactionism
symbolic interactionism and feminism
Which sociological perspective is most linked to microsociology
the conflict perspective
the feminist perspective
John and Doug are both full professors in a state university, holding doctorate degrees from Ivy League schools. Both make about the same salary and enjoy a similar sense of prestige in the community and on campus. Based only on this information, what do John and Doug have in common?
They share the same social location in all respects
they have identical social roles
They are members of the same social class
they share a great deal of social solidarity
What are the three primary variable in determining social class?
race, sex, residence
income, education, and occupational prestige
race, sex, income
income, education, sex
Jane is a 49-year-old woman of Irish-German descent. What do these characteristics have in common?
These are examples of her ascribed statuses
these are examples of her achieved statuses
these are part of her master status
these characteristics are examples of status inconsistency
A position in society that cuts across other statuses a person holds, such as being a high-ranking army officer, a college president, or a handicapped Olympian, would be considered that person's _____
Which of the following least qualified as a social institution?
a neighborhood street gang
a religious group
a military unit
The social institution that is most recognized for allocating power, determining authority, and preventing chaos is _______.
As societies grow larger, they divide work among members based on some standardized characteristics such as age or sex. This is referred to as _______.
division of labor
Mechanical solidarity is to Gemeinshaft as _________ solidarity is to Gesellshaft.
Anthony, a retired Army officer, is a professor of sociology at a small state university. During the Vietnam War, he was awarded the Medal of Honor and he usually wears a small ribbon on the lapel of his suit coat denoting this. He also wears his West Point ring from the class of 1965. Using the terminology of dramaturgy, the lapel pin and lass ring would be classified as ______.
A face-saving technique in which all parties involved in an embarrassing situation ignore it and continue their conversation or interaction as though the embarrassing situation never happened is referred to as _______.
redefining the situation
If people define a situation as real, they are real in the consequences. This statement is known as the ______.
A statement that describes how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory, is known as a _______.
Every research method has its drawbacks. Which method often leads the current researcher to question the manner in which the data were gathered, the accuracy of the data, and the training of the original researcher?
When Peter Rossi and the National Opinion Research Center studied the homeless, it was necessary for them to develop a practical and accurate description to determine exactly what constituted being homeless. This description would be classified as a (n) ______.
Matthew is completing his master's thesis, which addresses the culture of outlaw motorcycle gangs. For the past six months, he has been riding with the gang, observing and describing behaviors in an attempt to present a view of these groups from a gang members perspective. Like Mario Brajuha, he is determined to keep the identities of his subjects confidential. Which research method is Matthew employing?
a case study
The term "_________" refers to the extent to which different studies come up with similar results.
In research, to generalize one's findings to a total population, what is the most important quality that the sample must possess?
It must include at least 25% of the total population
it must be representative of the total population
it must consist of people who are selected and people who volunteer
it must be quantitative in order to make comparisons
What is defining characteristic of a random sample?
It consists of an equal number of men and women
it is created by asking questions of people who randomly happen to walk by
It gives each person in the population of interest an equal chance of being chosen
it ensures that every person in the sample represents a specific racial, gender, or religious group
What is the major problem with using participant observation as a research tool?
It often leads to finding a lack of generalizability
It is unacceptable based on standards of the American Sociological Association
it lacks both validity and reliability
it is highly biased
What are three qualities on which research ethics is based?
rapport, generalizability, validity
honesty, truth, openness
random sample, observation, fieldwork
consistency, accuracy, clarity
What term best applies to people who share culture and a territory?
Although it is the most egalitarian, what was the one social division common to all hunting and gathering societies?
Class differences based on relation ship to the means of production
Prestige based on male labor
Social class based on accumulated property
Social stratification based on race
What was the impetus for the first social revolution?
the domestication of plants and animals
the invention of steam engine
the invention of the plow
the establishment of cities
The "dawn of civilization" is the most associated with which social revolution?
Why did the creation of the industrial society lead to greater social inequality?
Class differences were minimized which created greater opportunity.
The new technology was far more efficient than anything that preceded it, leading to larger surpluses and greater inequality
Democracies replace monarchies and dictatorships encouraged capitalism.
Intellectual capability increased with advances in science and technology
Which was the first nation to have an excess of 50% of its workforce in the service industries?
The United States
Some social analysts believe that postindustrial society will be followed by a biotech society. Such a society would be characterized by _____.
a greater respect for the environment
the merging of work and leisure activity
an economy centering around application of genetic structures
The elimination of fossil fuels
A group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation is referred to as a ________.
______are the social ties that radiate outward from the self and link people together.
Who conducted the classic experiment addressing the power of peer pressure that included six stooges and one actual test subject viewing cards with lines of varying length?
What did Stanley Milgram's teacher-learner experiment demonstrate?
A substantial number of people will inflict pain on others if ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority
Most people conform to social norms, even when told to deviate from them by persons in authority
Group conformity is the most important social relationship people seek to achieve
Individualism is among the most cherished personal qualities one can possess
In group decision making, a form of tunnel vision that develops in which there is only one "right" viewpoint and suggested alternatives are perceived as signs of disloyalty is called _____.
Sociologists usually embrace Freudian theory on personality development because of its universal acceptance among social sciences.
Parents are the first significant others to teach children about the fundamental symbolic division of the world.
Gender serves as the primary basis for social inequality.
Social class, gender, race and ethnicity are aspects of one's life into the category of social location
Because of the power of peers and social institutions, we are all prisoners of socializtion
Conflict theorists and functionalists would most likely focus on things as social class and group relationships and would use the macrosociological approach.
Ascribed status is involuntary and achieved status is voluntary.
When an instrument measures what it is intended to measure, it is considered to possess the quality of reliability
The individuals that are inteded to represent the population to be studied are referred to as the sample
One of the liabilities in using the participant observation as a research method is that findings are difficult to generalize
In hunting and gathering societies, men routinely contributed the most food to the group
Inequality did not become a fundamental feature of life in society until the industrial revolution
The industrial revolution began in Great Britain in 1765 when the steam engine was first used to run machinery