Sociology

Question 1 of 72

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The concept that describes opening a window into unfamiliar worlds that allows us to understand human behavior by placing it within its broader social context is called....

Select one of the following:

  • Sociological perspective (or imagination)

  • Social location

  • Social integration

  • The social imperative

Question 2 of 72

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When sociologists group people into categories bases on their age, gender, educational level, job, income, they are trying to determine.....

Select one of the following:

  • Social network

  • Social location

  • social personality

  • social skills

Question 3 of 72

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The sociological perspective emphasizes how the social context influences people's lives, particularly how people are influenced by....

Select one of the following:

  • random chance events

  • geographical location

  • inherited genetic structure

  • society

Question 4 of 72

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The notion that only the fittest members of society deserve to survive and that social programs to help the poor will ultimately weaken the social order is a doctrine known as....

Select one of the following:

  • Social Darwinism

  • positivism

  • post-modern

  • social welfare

Question 5 of 72

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The term "survival of the fittest." Which is a principle part of the concept of social Darwinism was coined by...

Select one of the following:

  • Charles Darwin

  • Talcott Parsons

  • August Comte

  • Herbert Spencer

Question 6 of 72

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The first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard University, who spent his lifetime studying race relations in America and was one of the founders of the NAACP was...

Select one of the following:

  • W.E.B. Du Bois

  • Booker T. Washington

  • George Washington Carver

Question 7 of 72

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Mark views society as a system of interrelated parts, while John views society as composed of groups competing for scarce resources. Mark would be considered a (n)______ and John would be seen as a (an) __________

Select one of the following:

  • Symbolic interactionist; functionalist

  • applied sociologist; functionalist

  • basic sociologist; applied sociologist

  • functionalist; conflict theorist

Question 8 of 72

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According to Robert Merton, ____ are the intended beneficial consequences of people's actions.

Select one of the following:

  • latent functions

  • manifest dysfunctions

  • manifest functions

  • latent dysfunctions

Question 9 of 72

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Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material objects, and technology that are passed from one generation to the next by members of society describe_______.

Select one of the following:

  • Culture

  • Tradition

  • Science

  • Experience

Question 10 of 72

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Sociologists use the concept of "norms" to describe ________.

Select one of the following:

  • Standards by which people define what is socially desirable

  • Expressions of disapproval for violating socially acceptable behavior.

  • Ideas about what is true or false

  • Expectations or rules of behavior that develop from values

Question 11 of 72

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When a group has a distinctive away of looking at life, but at the same time its values and norms reflect the dominant culture of its society, the group would be considered a (n) ____.

Select one of the following:

  • Counterculture

  • Example of cultural relativism

  • Example of cultural diffusion

  • Subculture

Question 12 of 72

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The sociologist who identified ten underlying core values of American society was _____.

Select one of the following:

  • Michael Burawoy

  • Edward Wilson

  • Robin Williams

  • John Jacob Natzke

Question 13 of 72

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The spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another refers to _____.

Select one of the following:

  • folkways

  • cultural leveling

  • values

  • cultural universals

Question 14 of 72

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Within a few blocks in midtown Manhattan, you can purchase a bagel with cream cheese, a hot dog, a steak, a polish sausage, or a pizza, as well as chow mein, lamb curry, sushi, lasagna, felafels, chicken couscous, enchiladas, and a host of ethnic specialties. This range of culinary possibilities illustrates the process of ______.

Select one of the following:

  • cultural absolution

  • cultural discovery

  • cultural diffusion

  • cultural innovation

Question 15 of 72

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In the "nature versus nurture" argument regarding socialization, the nurture" component refers to _____.

Select one of the following:

  • Heredity

  • The social environment

  • instinct

  • genetic composition

Question 16 of 72

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What concept do sociologists refer to when they say that " society makes us human"?

Select one of the following:

  • Stratification

  • Psychoanalysis

  • Cultural tradition

  • Socialization

Question 17 of 72

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The process by which we develop a sense of self, referred to as the " looking glass self", was developed by _____.

Select one of the following:

  • George Herbert Mead

  • William I. Thomas

  • Charles Horton Cooley

  • Robert K. Merton

Question 18 of 72

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The symbolic interactionist who taught at the University of Chicago and stressed that play was crucial to develpment of the concept of self was _________.

Select one of the following:

  • Charles Horton Cooley

  • Lester Ward

  • George Herbert Mead

  • Talcott Parsons

Question 19 of 72

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According to Piaget, the stage of development that is dominated by touching, listening, looking, and the inability to recognize cause and effect is the ______ stage.

Select one of the following:

  • Formal operational

  • Preoperational

  • Sensorimotor

  • Concrete operational

Question 20 of 72

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In Kohlberg's theory of moral development, the stage in which the child has no sense of right or wrong and only personal needs is satisfied is the _______ stage.

Select one of the following:

  • Amoral

  • Preconventional

  • Conventional

  • Postconventional

Question 21 of 72

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In Freud's theory, what part of the personality represents the pleasure seeking aspect, demanding immediate fulfillment of basic needs such as attention, food, safety, and sex?

Select one of the following:

  • the id

  • the ego

  • the superego

  • the libido

Question 22 of 72

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People and groups that influence our orientation ___ our self-concepts, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors- are called _______.

Select one of the following:

  • Total institutions

  • Generalized others

  • Agents of socialization

  • out-groups

Question 23 of 72

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What term applies to the stages that people pass from birth to death, beginning with "childhood" and concluding with " the older years"?

Select one of the following:

  • Rites of Passage

  • Life theme

  • The life course

  • stages of development

Question 24 of 72

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Another term used for the stage of development called transitional adulthood, which is between the ages of 18 and 29 is ____.

Select one of the following:

  • The middle years

  • Adultolescence

  • The sandwich generation

  • Mid-life crisis

Question 25 of 72

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In Amsterdam, a 21-year-old prostitute is scantily clothed, exhibiting her attributes in a storefront, smiling at potential patrons as they walk by. Based on this mental image, which statement best describes what is in progress?

Select one of the following:

  • This is an example of social interaction

  • a misdemeanor is being committed

  • The prostitute is guilty of indecent exposure

  • This is a classic example of macrosociology

Question 26 of 72

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What two sociological perspectives are most linked to macrosociology?

Select one of the following:

  • symbolic interactionism and functionalism

  • functionalism and the conflict perspective

  • the conflict perspective and symbolic interactionism

  • symbolic interactionism and feminism

Question 27 of 72

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Which sociological perspective is most linked to microsociology

Select one of the following:

  • the conflict perspective

  • structural functionalism

  • symbolic interactionism

  • the feminist perspective

Question 28 of 72

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John and Doug are both full professors in a state university, holding doctorate degrees from Ivy League schools. Both make about the same salary and enjoy a similar sense of prestige in the community and on campus. Based only on this information, what do John and Doug have in common?

Select one of the following:

  • They share the same social location in all respects

  • they have identical social roles

  • They are members of the same social class

  • they share a great deal of social solidarity

Question 29 of 72

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What are the three primary variable in determining social class?

Select one of the following:

  • race, sex, residence

  • income, education, and occupational prestige

  • race, sex, income

  • income, education, sex

Question 30 of 72

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Jane is a 49-year-old woman of Irish-German descent. What do these characteristics have in common?

Select one of the following:

  • These are examples of her ascribed statuses

  • these are examples of her achieved statuses

  • these are part of her master status

  • these characteristics are examples of status inconsistency

Question 31 of 72

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A position in society that cuts across other statuses a person holds, such as being a high-ranking army officer, a college president, or a handicapped Olympian, would be considered that person's _____

Select one of the following:

  • ascribed status

  • social status

  • master status

  • status set

Question 32 of 72

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Which of the following least qualified as a social institution?

Select one of the following:

  • a neighborhood street gang

  • a family

  • a religious group

  • a military unit

Question 33 of 72

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The social institution that is most recognized for allocating power, determining authority, and preventing chaos is _______.

Select one of the following:

  • military

  • politics

  • law

  • education

Question 34 of 72

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As societies grow larger, they divide work among members based on some standardized characteristics such as age or sex. This is referred to as _______.

Select one of the following:

  • social solidarity

  • social imperative

  • division of labor

  • class structure

Question 35 of 72

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Mechanical solidarity is to Gemeinshaft as _________ solidarity is to Gesellshaft.

Select one of the following:

  • organic

  • tribal

  • folk

  • natural

Question 36 of 72

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Anthony, a retired Army officer, is a professor of sociology at a small state university. During the Vietnam War, he was awarded the Medal of Honor and he usually wears a small ribbon on the lapel of his suit coat denoting this. He also wears his West Point ring from the class of 1965. Using the terminology of dramaturgy, the lapel pin and lass ring would be classified as ______.

Select one of the following:

  • Stages

  • Background assumptions

  • role performances

  • props

Question 37 of 72

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A face-saving technique in which all parties involved in an embarrassing situation ignore it and continue their conversation or interaction as though the embarrassing situation never happened is referred to as _______.

Select one of the following:

  • redefining the situation

  • teamwork

  • studied nonobservance

  • impression management

Question 38 of 72

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If people define a situation as real, they are real in the consequences. This statement is known as the ______.

Select one of the following:

  • Peter principle

  • Thomas theorem

  • Ouchi principle

  • Garfinkel theorem

Question 39 of 72

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A statement that describes how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory, is known as a _______.

Select one of the following:

  • correlation

  • hypotheses

  • secondary prediction

  • primary function

Question 40 of 72

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Every research method has its drawbacks. Which method often leads the current researcher to question the manner in which the data were gathered, the accuracy of the data, and the training of the original researcher?

Select one of the following:

  • Secondary analysis

  • Participant observation

  • Experiments

  • interviews

Question 41 of 72

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When Peter Rossi and the National Opinion Research Center studied the homeless, it was necessary for them to develop a practical and accurate description to determine exactly what constituted being homeless. This description would be classified as a (n) ______.

Select one of the following:

  • research objective

  • hypothesis

  • operational definition

  • correlation

Question 42 of 72

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Matthew is completing his master's thesis, which addresses the culture of outlaw motorcycle gangs. For the past six months, he has been riding with the gang, observing and describing behaviors in an attempt to present a view of these groups from a gang members perspective. Like Mario Brajuha, he is determined to keep the identities of his subjects confidential. Which research method is Matthew employing?

Select one of the following:

  • a case study

  • documentary

  • participant observation

  • unobtrusive measures

Question 43 of 72

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The term "_________" refers to the extent to which different studies come up with similar results.

Select one of the following:

  • Validity

  • Replication

  • Reliability

  • duplication

Question 44 of 72

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In research, to generalize one's findings to a total population, what is the most important quality that the sample must possess?

Select one of the following:

  • It must include at least 25% of the total population

  • it must be representative of the total population

  • it must consist of people who are selected and people who volunteer

  • it must be quantitative in order to make comparisons

Question 45 of 72

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What is defining characteristic of a random sample?

Select one of the following:

  • It consists of an equal number of men and women

  • it is created by asking questions of people who randomly happen to walk by

  • It gives each person in the population of interest an equal chance of being chosen

  • it ensures that every person in the sample represents a specific racial, gender, or religious group

Question 46 of 72

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What is the major problem with using participant observation as a research tool?

Select one of the following:

  • It often leads to finding a lack of generalizability

  • It is unacceptable based on standards of the American Sociological Association

  • it lacks both validity and reliability

  • it is highly biased

Question 47 of 72

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What are three qualities on which research ethics is based?

Select one of the following:

  • rapport, generalizability, validity

  • honesty, truth, openness

  • random sample, observation, fieldwork

  • consistency, accuracy, clarity

Question 48 of 72

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What term best applies to people who share culture and a territory?

Select one of the following:

  • a society

  • a bureaucracy

  • an aggregate

  • a category

Question 49 of 72

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Although it is the most egalitarian, what was the one social division common to all hunting and gathering societies?

Select one of the following:

  • Class differences based on relation ship to the means of production

  • Prestige based on male labor

  • Social class based on accumulated property

  • Social stratification based on race

Question 50 of 72

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What was the impetus for the first social revolution?

Select one of the following:

  • the domestication of plants and animals

  • the invention of steam engine

  • the invention of the plow

  • the establishment of cities

Question 51 of 72

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The "dawn of civilization" is the most associated with which social revolution?

Select one of the following:

  • domestication

  • agriculture

  • industrialization information

Question 52 of 72

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Why did the creation of the industrial society lead to greater social inequality?

Select one of the following:

  • Class differences were minimized which created greater opportunity.

  • The new technology was far more efficient than anything that preceded it, leading to larger surpluses and greater inequality

  • Democracies replace monarchies and dictatorships encouraged capitalism.

  • Intellectual capability increased with advances in science and technology

Question 53 of 72

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Which was the first nation to have an excess of 50% of its workforce in the service industries?

Select one of the following:

  • The United States

  • Germany

  • Japan

  • China

Question 54 of 72

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Some social analysts believe that postindustrial society will be followed by a biotech society. Such a society would be characterized by _____.

Select one of the following:

  • a greater respect for the environment

  • the merging of work and leisure activity

  • an economy centering around application of genetic structures

  • The elimination of fossil fuels

Question 55 of 72

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A group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation is referred to as a ________.

Select one of the following:

  • secondary group

  • clique

  • primary group

  • community

Question 56 of 72

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______are the social ties that radiate outward from the self and link people together.

Select one of the following:

  • Cyber socialization

  • Secondary societies

  • Social networks

  • electronic communities

Question 57 of 72

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Who conducted the classic experiment addressing the power of peer pressure that included six stooges and one actual test subject viewing cards with lines of varying length?

Select one of the following:

  • Stanley Milgram

  • Robert Merton

  • Philip Zimbardo

  • Solomon Asch

Question 58 of 72

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What did Stanley Milgram's teacher-learner experiment demonstrate?

Select one of the following:

  • A substantial number of people will inflict pain on others if ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority

  • Most people conform to social norms, even when told to deviate from them by persons in authority

  • Group conformity is the most important social relationship people seek to achieve

  • Individualism is among the most cherished personal qualities one can possess

Question 59 of 72

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In group decision making, a form of tunnel vision that develops in which there is only one "right" viewpoint and suggested alternatives are perceived as signs of disloyalty is called _____.

Select one of the following:

  • brainwashing

  • groupthink

  • mental programming

  • group polarization

Question 60 of 72

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Sociologists usually embrace Freudian theory on personality development because of its universal acceptance among social sciences.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 61 of 72

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Parents are the first significant others to teach children about the fundamental symbolic division of the world.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 62 of 72

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Gender serves as the primary basis for social inequality.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 63 of 72

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Social class, gender, race and ethnicity are aspects of one's life into the category of social location

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 64 of 72

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Because of the power of peers and social institutions, we are all prisoners of socializtion

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 65 of 72

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Conflict theorists and functionalists would most likely focus on things as social class and group relationships and would use the macrosociological approach.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 66 of 72

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Ascribed status is involuntary and achieved status is voluntary.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 67 of 72

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When an instrument measures what it is intended to measure, it is considered to possess the quality of reliability

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 68 of 72

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The individuals that are inteded to represent the population to be studied are referred to as the sample

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 69 of 72

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One of the liabilities in using the participant observation as a research method is that findings are difficult to generalize

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 70 of 72

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In hunting and gathering societies, men routinely contributed the most food to the group

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 71 of 72

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Inequality did not become a fundamental feature of life in society until the industrial revolution

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 72 of 72

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The industrial revolution began in Great Britain in 1765 when the steam engine was first used to run machinery

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False
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sanga_san
Quiz by , created almost 3 years ago

SOCI 111 college study exam

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Created by sanga_san almost 3 years ago
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