What is the name of the theory that states Earth's crust is broken into many pieces that float around on the mantle (or sometimes stated as floating on the asthenosphere)?
The Theory of Evolution & Natural Selection
The Theory of Plate Tectonics
The Theory of Subduction
The Plate Boundaries Theory
What process or processes would cause a big, tall mountain to become a much smaller mountain or hill over thousands or millions of years?
Lava forming extrusive igneous rock.
Sedimentation or deposition.
Weathering and erosion
Which of the following is the name of a break in rock that could rearrange rock layers so that they no longer line up in neat rows?
If you see rocks that look like they have been pushed together in ribbon-like layers, such as in the diagram below, what process would cause this change in the rock layers?
Which rock layer below most likely is the newest or youngest?
The bottom layer made up of a rock called davin shale.
The top layer made up of loren shale
The intrusion of basalt
The blackman shale layer
Which of these rock layers would be most the most likely to be made up of sedimentary rock?
Rock layer A
Rock layer F
All of these would be equally likely to be made up of sedimentary rock
Theory of Pangaea: In the early twentieth century, a scientist named Alfred Wegener noticed that, if you cut the continents out of a map, they would fit nicely together into one large super continent. He named this super continent, Pangaea. He predicted that Pangaea existed about 200 million years ago. Using that time period, he looked at what animals lived during that time and began to search for fossils on each continent. He was able to find fossils of the same kinds of animals on both continents where they would have been joined so his theory was supported. However, the best supporting evidence wasn’t found until the 1060’s. The idea of continental drift, where tectonic plates move around on Earth's mantle, explains how the continents have ended up in their current positions. Based on this information, which of the following is a true statement?
Earth's tectonic plates have very slowly moved over a long period of time. They used to be pushed together in one large continent, called Pangaea, but over time, the continents drifted apart to where they are today. They are not likely to move any further apart or closer together over the next few million years because the process has stopped. Fossil evidence proves the continents were once pushed together.
Earth's tectonic plates float around on the mantle because of convection currents. They used to be pushed together as one large continent, called Pangaea. Over millions of years, the continents have drifted apart to their current positions. One major piece of evidence to support this theory are the fossils found and the shapes of the continents that seem to fit like puzzle pieces. Over the next few million years, the continents will continue to drift apart in places and drift closer together in other places.
Alfred Wegener figured out that Earth's tectonic plates were moving around and called the idea continental drift. He realized this process happens very quickly, so over the next hundred years or so, North America will probably be touching China because of the convergent plate boundary around the Pacific Ocean.
Continental drift is the idea that explains how earth's continents have pushed together to their current positions, which is called Pangaea. Alfred Wegener was the person who proposed the idea that fossils change as the continents move around. By working with Charles Darwin, Alfred Wegener was able to figure out how Pangaea happened from convection currents by studying fossils.
Lithosphere: The outer crust of the earth is known as the lithosphere and it is composed of the seven large plates and many smaller pieces. These are all known as tectonic plates. In Wegener’s theory, Pangaea broke apart and the pieces started moving over the earth’s surface and into their current locations. In fact, the plates are still moving and, if you could revisit the earth in a few million years from now, you would notice that the continents are not in exactly the same places they are today. Tectonic plates move because of convection currents within the mantle. As hot magma moves up, it starts to cool and sinks back toward the core where it heats back up, lowering the density and causing it to rise and cool again. What is the lithosphere?
All of Earth's Land
All of Earth's Water
All of Earth's Living Things
All of Earth's Air
Water on Earth is always changing. Its repeating changes make a cycle. As water goes through its cycle, it can be a solid (ice), a liquid (water), or a gas (water vapor). Ice can change to become water or water vapor. Water can change to become ice or water vapor. Water vapor can change to become ice or water. What type of change is this when a substance changes from a solid to a liquid or a liquid to a gas?
Both chemical and physical
What was the total distance this plane flew?
None of these
Look at the graph above. In this experiment, what was the dependent variable?
The week the plant was checked
Fertilizer given to plants
How many plants grown
The height of the plants
According to this graph, which of the following would be the BEST conclusion to the experiment?
Plants given fertilizer grew an average of 6 cm higher than those not given fertilizer; therefore, the fertilizer is clearly helpful to the growth of these plants.
Plants given water only grew an average of 6 cm higher than those not given fertilizer; therefore, the fertilizer is clearly not helpful to the growth of these plants.
Based on this graph, it is difficult or impossible to tell whether or not the fertilizer was helpful to the plants.
Fertilizer is helpful to the growth of plants as you can see by this experiment.
In many locations the hot molten magma from deep within the Earth rises up through the crust to reach the surface. This sometimes happens in the middle of plates. When a hot spot forms in the middle of a plate, it remains constant, as the plate continues to move over it. The result is that a trail of volcanoes is left behind, with older volcanoes moving away from the hot spot, and newer ones forming over top of the hot spot. What moves to form a hot spot volcano?
The hot spot itself moves
The convergent plate boundary forms the volcanoes as the ocean plate subducts
The tectonic plate moves over the hot spot
Nothing moves. Several hotspots form in a line to create a volcanic island arc
What is the difference between a fault and a fold?
A fault is when rocks break, and a fold is when rocks bend.
A fault is caused by plates pulling apart, and a fold is caused by plates pushing together.
A fault occurs only in the middle of plates, and a fold occurs at plate boundaries.
None of these describes the difference in a fault and a fold.
Which processes are considered destructive?
Divergent plate boundaries and weathering.
Weathering and convergent plate boundaries.
Both convergent plate boundaries and divergent plate boundaries.
Transform plate boundaries and faults.
Which type of plate boundary forms folded mountains?
Convergent between an ocean plate and a continental plate.
Convergent between two continental plates.
What causes seafloor spreading?
Earthquakes break apart the ocean floor.
Sediments accumulate (build up) at the area of spreading.
New material is being added to the asthenosphere.
Molten material beneath Earth’s crust rises to the surface.
What kind of plate boundary makes a subduction zone and often makes big earthquakes?
Convergent with an ocean plate and a continental plate
Convergent with two continental plates
The India Continetnal Plate is constantly pushing north up into the Eurasian Continental Plate. What kind of plate boundary is this, and what kind of landform is being created?
Convergent and volcanoes
Divergent and ridges
Divergent and volcanoes
Convergent and folded mountains
What is the place beneath earth where rock breaks and sends out seismic waves in all directions from the point where the rock broke to cause earthquakes called?
Which type of plate boundary is considered a constructive Earth process as new igneous rocks are being formed?
Which part of the water cycle happens when water RELEASES thermal energy?
Which of the following is the correct definition for density?
Density is the amount of space something takes up.
Density is the amount of matter in an object.
Density is the amount of matter in a specific space.
Density is the temperature of an object affecting its mass.
What are the two main things that make a metamorphic rock?
Convection currents and intense heat.
intense heat and pressure
cooling and cementation
friction and wind
This diagram shows many of the processes that change rocks from one form to another. Uplift is a term that refers to rocks being pushed up from faulting or folding of rock. Weathering breaks down rock. Extrusive igneous rock will form on the OUTSIDE of the volcano from cooled lava as it erupts. The intrusive igneous rock forms from cooled magma inside earth. What process provides the transportation of rock down the mountain?