is the internal or external elastic lamina more prominent?
Why is the elastic lamellae in elastic arteries fenestrated?
In what tissues do we find fenestrated capillaries?
In what tissues are continuous capillaries found?
In what tissues do we find discontinuous capillaries?
Where are veins with valves found?
Give an example of a vein that has several layers of smooth muscle in its tunica media.
What type of blood vessels have muscular arteries?
Give an example of an elastic artery?
Where does an atheroma start?
What are 'vasa vasorum' ?
Approximately what percentage of blood is found in veins and venules?
What percentage of blood is found in the systemic arteries?
What are the dimensions of a capillary?
What does the tunica intima consist of?
What does the tunica media consist of?
What does the tunica adventicia consist of?
Where are volume receptors located?
What is the raphe nucleus?
What controls total peripheral resistance?
What is the long term regulator of blood pressure?
What type of blood pressure regulator is the baroreceptor reflex?
The baroreceptors detect an increase in arterial blood pressure. What happens next?
What percentage of circulating blood is found in the capillaries?
What is the function of baroreceptors and where are they found?
When does metabolic or active hyperemia occur?
Give three examples of metabolic by-products.
How can the diameter of blood vessels be controlled intrinsically?
What is the diameter of arterioles?
What is the diameter of capillaries?
Where are arteriovenous anastomoses found?
Name two extrinsic controllers of blood vessels.
What effect does angiotensin II have on blood vessel diameter?
What effect does adrenalin have on blood vessel diameter?
What effect does vasopressin have on blood vessel diameter?
What effect does ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide) have on blood vessel diameter?
What is total peripheral resistance?
Does pulse pressure apply to capillaries?
How do we calculate blood pressure?
How do we calculate mean arterial pressure?
What is the normal value for diastolic pressure?
What is the normal value for systolic pressure?
What is the normal value for pulse pressure?
How do you calculate pulse pressure?
What's the normal value for mean arterial pressure?
What causes the dicrotic notch?
Define venous return
Define cardiac output
Name two factors that affect end-diastolic volume.
What is the equation for ejection fraction?
Name three methods which we can use to measure cardiac output or stroke volume and heart rate.
Equation for cardiac output
What is Starling's Law
How do we calculate stroke volume?
What is the typical value for stroke volume?
What is the typical value for end diastolic volume?
What is the typical value for end systolic volume?
How do we calculate perfusion pressure?
How do we calculate blood flow?
What is the flow of blood driven by?
What does Poiseuille's law describe?
What is the equation for the law of Laplace?
What are the three layers of large blood vessels?
What is the function of an anatomose?
What are they key differences between a cardiac action potential at the ventricle and one at the SAN?
Where do you place limb lead II?
How long does one cardiac cycle last for?
How long does diastole last for?
Where does the sympathetic nerve supply to the heart come from?
Where does the parasympathetic nerve supply to the heart come from ?
What neurotransmitter is released via the parasympathetic neurons and what receptor do they act on?
What neurotransmitter is released by the sympathetic neurons and what receptors does it act on in the heart?
Name three differences between cardiac and skeletal muscle
What is the conduction velocity of the AVN?
What is the conduction velocity of the sino-atrial node?
What is the conduction velocity of the purkinje fibres?
What is the conduction velocity of the bundle of his?
What is the physiological significance of the 0.1s delay at the AVN?
Where do you place limb lead III?
What does limb lead one record?
What are the potential changes in the heart and how do they differ to surface potential recordings?
How long does the P wave last for?
What does the P wave correspond to?
What does the QRS complex correspond to?
What does the T wave correspond to?
When does atrial repolarisation occur?
How long does the QRS complex last for?