In a certain country, decisions regarding production and consumption of goods are based upon customs, beliefs, rituals, and habits. Over time, the economic system changes to one in which production decisions are based on competition and consumer choice.
How has the economic system of this country changed?
from a mixed economy to a command economy
from a command economy to a mixed economy
from a traditional economy to a market econom
from a market economy to a traditional economy
In a certain country, all decisions concerning the production of goods and services are made by the government. However, following a political revolution, a new economic system is set up in which some decisions regarding production of goods and services are made by the government and others are made by individuals and private companies.
How has the economy of this country changed?
from a mixed economy to a market economy
from a traditional economy to a command economy
A government was chosen by the majority party in the legislature. The people revolted and established a new government in which the ruler was chosen by religious elders and used power to enforce religious law.
How did the system of government change?
from a theocracy to an absolute monarchy
from a presidential democracy to a dictatorship
from a dictatorship to a constitutional monarchy
from a parliamentary democracy to a theocracy
Which characteristic makes a constitutional monarchy different from an absolute monarchy?
an official state religion
the presence of a noble class
a ruler who inherits power by birth
laws which limit the power of the ruler
Enlightenment philosophers such as John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote that the relationship between citizens and their government was a social contract.
Which statement describes the impact of the idea of government as a social contract on the French Revolution in 1789?
The king granted women the right to vote.
French citizens claimed their natural rights
The king raised taxes to pay off the public debt.
French citizens supported the king against the nobles.
What was one idea that the leaders of the American Revolution shared with Enlightenment thinkers?
Colonies exist to provide raw materials and markets for mother countries.
The people have the right to overthrow their government if it abuses its powers.
Governments may restrict freedom of speech and of the press during times of crisis.
Factories and businesses should be owned by the government rather than by individuals.
The following is from an article in the newspaper.
"Funding for state parks has been one of our governor’s top priorities over the last four years. When she entered office, state park funding was at $21 million; this year, the parks’ budget will be over $40 million."
Which method enables a citizen to analyze the reliability of this information?
Visit some state parks
Listen to all of the governor’s speeches
Read a recent book written by the governor.
Verify the accuracy of the information presented.
High school principals in a particular city have joined together in a request to local businesses that they voluntarily restrict the number of hours students work during the school year. The principals believe that students’ schoolwork will improve if students work fewer hours.
What information could help support their claim?
data showing that students are not productive on the job
surveys showing that students prefer their jobs to their schoolwork
studies of student performance where such restrictions have been in place
data comparing the effects of athletic participation and non-participation on school achievement
A town decides to build a new park. The mayor appoints a committee to review possible designs. After two months, the committee issues a report with its recommendations.
Which factor contributes to the credibility of the report?
the length of the report
the cost of the report to the city
the number of tables and charts included
the qualifications of the committee members
The authors of many history books provide bibliographies that indicate the sources for information provided in the text. Why would providing the reader with this information make a book more credible?
It allows the reader to check the reputation of the writer.
It allows the reader to find other books on the same topic
It allows the reader to form his or her own opinions on the topic
It allows the reader to determine the thoroughness of the author’s research.
In a command economy, the question of what goods to produce is primarily determined by...
decisions by individuals.
Economic systems answer the question of how goods and services are produced. What is one way a country could change from a command economy to a market economy?
if the government takes control of family-owned farms
if privately owned banks become subject to stricter regulation
if agricultural and factory workers are required to join labor unions
if industries that had been owned by the government become privately owned
How do absolute monarchs differ from constitutional monarchs in their ability to use power?
The power of absolute monarchs is unlimited.
The power of absolute monarchs is maintained through periodic elections.
The power of absolute monarchs is limited by the fundamental laws of the country.
The power of absolute monarchs depends on continued support from their political party.
Under what system of government are leaders typically chosen by church officials or religious elders?
What action by the leaders of the French Revolution demonstrates that they were influenced by Enlightenment ideas?
They called for the fall of the absolute monarchy.
They encouraged the conquests of Napoleon
They fought to maintain France’s colonial empire.
They supported the combination of church and state.
In exploring the relationship between governments and people, Thomas Hobbes argued that governments resulted from a social contract to maintain an orderly society. John Locke, another philosopher of the Enlightenment, inspired American revolutionaries by arguing that a new social contract could be instituted under what circumstance?
if a government failed to compel obedience
if a government violated people’s natural rights
if a government failed to protect people from economic inequality
f a government entered into alliances with foreign governments
Which statement correctly describes the role of the government in a country with a mixed economy?
The government allows economic decisions to be made by the society’s traditions and customs.
The government makes all decisions regarding the production and distribution of goods.
The government makes some production and distribution decisions, but other economic decisions are made by individuals
The government exercises no decision making in economic matters; production and distribution are determined solely by individuals.
The primary feature of a dictatorship is that
people are permitted to vote for more than one candidate.
the executive branch has equal power with the legislative branch.
judicial courts are replaced by military courts.
leaders make decisions without the consent of the people.
Many Latin American nations gained their independence early in the 19th century. The relationship between the people and their government changed. Slavery existed under colonial governments, but some of the new nations, such as Haiti, did not permit slavery. The abolition of slavery was based on Enlightenment ideas of
liberty as a natural right of man.
separation of governmental powers.
personal rights as less important than civil order.
the authority of absolute monarchs
In determining what to produce, how do market economies typically respond to high consumer demand for a product?
The government regulates the price of the product.
Private companies increase production of the product.
The government sets production quotas until the demand is met.
Private companies and the government work together to reduce demand
According to the information in the diagrams, what is the difference in the relationship between the executive and the legislature in the two types of democracies?
In a presidential democracy, the executive is more accountable to the legislature.
In a presidential democracy, the legislature is more accountable to the executive.
In a presidential democracy, the executive and the legislature are directly accountable to the citizens.
In a presidential democracy, the executive and the legislature are less accountable to the citizens.
A government in which the leader typically uses the threat of force to maintain control of the government is known as a
Enlightenment philosophers such as John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau challenged the idea of the divine right of kings. They wrote about a government’s obligations to uphold people’s rights and how the government should be based on the consent of the governed.
These new ideas encouraged people to
remain firm in their support of absolute monarchs.
look for leaders who would exercise dictatorial powers.
engage in revolutions to establish democratic governments.
call for church leaders to create theocracies and replace the monarchies.
Economies must address how to produce goods and services. In the economy of a certain country, some factories are owned by individuals and private companies, and other factories are owned and controlled by the government.
What type of economy does this country have?
In a democracy, the source of authority for the government is the
head of state.
Natural law was a fundamental idea of the Enlightenment.
Which concept is an application of natural law to the government’s role in the economic lives of its citizens?
free markets based on supply and demand
government control to achieve a favorable balance of trade
agriculture based on tenant farming and serfdom
lower taxes on the most privileged groups in society
During the Enlightenment, a number of writers explored the relationship between governments and the people they governed. For example, Rousseau wrote The Social Contract, in which he examined ideas about majority will and the common good.
How did these ideas influence the American and French Revolutions?
They encouraged loyalty to established governments.
They supported movements for social and political change.
They encouraged the formation of American and French constitutional monarchies.
They supported the efforts of governments to maintain control over their subjects.
How did the ideas of the Enlightenment challenge religious authority.?
People began to believe they have the power to solve their own problems.
It reduced emphasis on scientific inquiry.
It helped new nation to negotiate peace treaties.
It brought about many new religions.
Which of the following describes one connection between the ideas of the Enlightenment and the American Revolution?
The Enlightenment spread the idea of reduced taxation.
The Enlightenment believed in the powers of absolute monarchy
The Enlightenment preached the government power can be held by the people.
The Enlightenment reduced the power of military.
Which of the following describes one general result of urbanization?
a reduction in urban population
general improve economic development
centers in manufacturing must move
Read the following description of an economic system:
**Private property is allowed in and encouraged.
**Business find existing products and come up with new ones.
**Competition and consumer choice flourish.
**The government has some, but not total control.
How is power acquired in a presidential democracy?
The Kings grant power to the legislature who chooses the President.
The president is granted power from the people.
Power is usually violently seized from someone already in power.
The major religion power in the country grants power to the government.
In which of the following systems were people have the opportunity to participate in the government?
A government system in which the national government share powers with the state government is called...