An approach to life in which there is an emphasis on rules, efficiency, and practical results is ____.
Which sociologist is given credit for coining the concept of the "McDonaldization of Society"?
Nick was a promising caseworker for an agency. After earning several lower-level promotions, he was appointed to a supervisory position. Supervisory work did not mix well with Nick's abilities and he fell into a professional rut. This is an example of the ____.
According to Kanter, organizations sometimes showcase women and minorities by placing them in highly visible positions to demonstrate how progressive they are. Regardless of the type of organization they are in, what do these highly visible positions usually have in common.
They are supervisory jobs with considerable power and autonomy
They are highly paid jobs directed toward "fast-track" promotions
They are jobs with little power and minimal authority
They are highly competitive positions sought after by most members of the organization
It is becoming more common for corporations to provide daycare facilities as fringe benefit for their empoyees. What has evaluative research found regarding the costs and benefits of these facilities?
Day care facilities are ineffective because the are used by only a few employees
Because of the large number of employees using them, daycare facilities are too expensive to operate
Operating on-site daycare reduces employee absenteeism, improves production, and increases staff morale
The results of the research are inconclusive
Violations of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called _____.
The concept of the relativity of deviance is best illustrated by which of the following statements?
It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant
the nature of one's behavior is the most important aspect in determining deviance
Deviance is most related to functionalism because it creates a dysfunction of society
Deviance is analogous to mental illness
In an effort to resist the label of "deviant", most people will develop rationales to justify their deviant acts. Sykes and Matza refer to these rationales as ___.
Techniques of neutralization
Strategies of justification
According to strain theory, the underlying cause of deviance is that people experience a sense of normleness. This sense of normleness is referred to as ____.
What are the two most significant "anchoring devices" that insulate a person from a life of crime and imprisonment?
a good lawyer and big expense account
neighborhood and income
race and ethnicity
marriage and education
In every society, from the hunting and gathering society to the postindustrial society, the most common basis for social stratification has been _____.
What is the significant difference between the class system and the systems of slavery, caste and estate?
the class system is not based on religion
the class system has fluid boundaries
the class system works in democracies
the class system existed before the other three
What did Karl Marx predict after workers were exploited year after year by the capitalist class?
The capitalist society would synthesize into a classless society
a strong middle class would emerge
workers would abandon their jobs, unionize, and gain the power to negotiate
Workers would revolt against the bourgeoisie and assume control
Which concept explains the rise of global stratifications including core nations, semi-periphery nations, periphery nations, and external areas?
culture of poverty
world system theory
Why do the ruling elite in the Least Industrialized Nations work so closely with the heads of multinational corporations to develop informal relationships.
To develop the necessary political stability to maintain partnership
to expand the middle class throughout least industrialized nations
to increase humanitarian aid to the poor
to increase the standard of living of people in poor nations
As described in the text, what are the two myths of race?
Eventually there will only be one race; all races have the same origin
there is only one race; intelligence is based on race
one race superior to another; pure races exist
all races have the same origin; race is a status that cannot be changed
while race might reflect our biological heritage, ___ reflects our cultural heritage
the best lasagna in the valley. in view of this, which phrase best describes Tony's behavior?
Tony is exercising the concept of ethnic work
tony is experiencing a racial identity crisis
tony is experiencing role diffusion
tony is confused over what his master status is
The belief held by many African Americans that lighter skinned African American women are more attractive than those with darker skin is referred to as ___.
the reformulation of race at the micro-level
The internalization of the norms of the dominant group
reverse racism at the micro-level
race betrayal of the minority class
Prejudice describes ____ while discrimination describes ______.
Pedro, a legal immigrant from Mexico, and George, a white male whose family has been in America for several generations, have each applied for a car loan at the local bank. Pedro's loan was turned down while George was granted a loan. In comparing their credit history, both men had good credit, and their debts and income were comparable. This is an example of ____ against Pedro.
In American history, who were the white ethics?
They were immigrants from Europe whose language and other customs differed from the original White Anglo-Saxon Protestants
They were colonists who settled in Canada
They were colonists who left the original 13 colonies and moved westward prior to the establishment of the United States.
They were colonists loyal to England who did not support American independence
Of all ethnic groups, in which group are children most likely to grow up with two parents and least likely to be born to a single mother?
What are three variables Max Weber identified as defining social class?
Ethnicity, race, sex
wealth, power, prestige
sex, power, education
occupation, neighborhoods, wealth
which of the following individuals would have the narrowest field of "eligible" marriage partners based on background expectations?
Ruth, a member of the working poor living in Harlem
Herbert, a blue-collar machinist living in the city
Noelle, the daughter of two high school teachers living in suburbia
Christian, the son of a CEO of a major corporation.
Ken belongs to a church in which the worship services are highly expressive with spontaneous "amens" and "praise jesus" outbursts accompanied by loud, inspirational organ music. Ken is most likely a member of the _____ class.
What is the relationship between births to a single women and their level of education?
the greater the level of education, the more births to single women
the lower the level of education, the fewer births to single women
the greater the level of education, the fewer births to single women
there is no relationship between the level of education and births to single women
The Key to effectively maintaining social stratification involves the privileged class controlling ideas and information rather than depending on the use of force.
Although it is expensive, coercion is the most effective means by which elites can maintain stratification of their societies.
Wealth and incom are interchangeable terms, each meaning the smae in reference to social class
there is a direct relationship between the amount of education an occupation requires and the prestige it holds in society
the higher a person's position on the social ladder, the more likely they will become a victim of crime
The 1985 Vietnam veterans study clearly demonstrated that biology (in this case, testosterone) is the cause of male aggressiveness.
The major theories on the origin of patriarchy point to the social consequences of human reproduction
Who proposed the concept that women are better prepared biologically for mothering than men, which is overlaid in culture?
Cynthia Fuchs Epstein
Rebecca Ann Wilson
Based on the accident that led to the sex change of a seven-month-old identical twin as well as the Vietnam veteran's study, which statement is most accurate regarding the effects of nature and nurture on behavior?
Nature is the dominant force in determining human behavior
Nurture is the dominant force determining human behavior
Human behavior is the result of nature and nurture working together
Neither nature nor nurture is responsible for determining human behavior
What is the philosophy that biology is not destiny, especially with regard to gender stratification
Which wave of the women's movement focused on teh problems of women in the least industrialized nations?
the first wave
the second wave
the third wave
the fourth wave
the age range of women most likely to be victims of rape is ____.
12 to 15
What are the two careers most associated with being successful in politics, both of which are underrepresented by women?
Medicine and education
law and medicine
education and business
law and business