True or false: the net production of ATP from palmitate (16C) through B-oxidation (and then TCA/ETC) is 108.
In what circumstances are ketone bodies produced?
What is the purpose of fatty acid activation in Beta oxidation?
Why are ketone bodies produced?
Why does oxaloacetate have to be taken out and used in gluconeogenesis? Why can't the acetyl CoA be used directly to make glucose?
What is the first molecules in beta oxidation?
Why is it important that acetyl CoA is broken down in some other way than the TCA?
What enzyme is required to join the fatty acid (Acyl) to CoA?
True or false: the reaction when joiing Acyl to CoA requires ATP?
How is the activation step in B-oxidation made irreversible?
What kind of reaction is 3-ketothialse (in ketones)?
How is the fatty acid activation step of B-oxidation regulated?
What is produced from the first reaction in the ketone pathway?
Where does the energy come from to drive the first step in the ketone pathway?
How is Acyl CoA transported into the mitochondria?
Why is a shuttle required to transport Acyl CoA into the mitochondria?
What enzyme is responsible for the movement of Acyl CoA across the mitochondrial membrane (in the shuttle)?
What downregulates this first step in beta oxidation?
What kind of reaction is the first reaction in B-oxidation? (Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase)
Where does the energy for the first reaction in B-oxidation come from?
What is the pathway of reactions in beta-oxidation?
What kind of reaction is the second reaction in B-oxidation (Enoyl CoA Hydratase)? What is the purpose of this step?
What kind of reaction is the second step in ketone production (hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA synthase)? What two things are added in this reaction to form a 6C molecule?
What kind of reaction is the third reaction in Beta-oxidation (L-3 hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase)?
What is the purpose of the second reaction in ketone production?
Where does the energy come from to drive the second reaction (in ketone production)?
What are two products of the lysis reaction B-ketothiolase?
What kind of reaction is the third reaction in ketone production?
How is the ketone acetoacetate transported out of the cell?
Where does the CoA come from in the last step?
Where might the ketone acetoacetate be used in the body for energy?
What kind of reaction is the fourth step in ketone production?
In what circumstance can B-oxidation produce two Acetyl CoA molecules and not an Acyl CoA?
True or false: the fourth reaction in ketone production is reversible which allows equilibrium between acetate:butyrate to occur depending on the concentration of NAD+/NADH in the mitochondria?
What inhibits the B-ketothiolase reaction?
What other product is formed when B-hydroxybutyrate is produced?
What is ketoacidosis?
Why is a completely separate pathway required for unsaturated fatty acids (other than B-oxidation)?
What are the two types of reactions (and their purpose) that occur in unsaturated fatty acids (and what are the enzymes)?
Why can odd chain fatty acids not be dealt with by B-oxidation?
What is the purpose of producing ketones in the body?
What are the two reactions that are needed to convert 3C propionyl CoA to succinate?
What are perioxisomes? What is their function?
What is the purpose of reversing the ketone reaction and turning acetoacetate back into acetoacetyl CoA (and eventually acetyl CoA)?
What are two of the circumstances which will result in oxidation in perioxisomes and not b-oxidation?
True or false: the reaction sequence of oxidation in peroxisomes is the same as B-oxidation?
Why are the electrons from FADH2 not passed on to the ETC (in the first step of oxidation in peroxisomes?) What do the electrons produce instead?
Name three cells which may prefer to use ketones as fuel as opposed to glucose.
How much of the energy in brain comes from ketones in normal conditions and in starvation?
What happens to glucose and ketone levels as starvation proceeds?
Why does the brain not use FFA very well to produce energy?
What is ketosis? Where can it be seen?