What are the three evolutionaryexplanations of phobias?
Ancient fears, Prepotency and Preparedness
Explain ancient fears
Acient fears rae those that posed a real threat to our ancestors, Modern day phobias are an exaggeration of this. Marks and Nesse suggested that modern day phobias rarely develop as they did not pose a threat to our ancestors
Evaluation of acient fears..
It is effective in explaining the uneven distribution of phobias. It ignores the acquistion of modern phobias e.g. Needles (link to expectancy bias Davey)
We have developed an adaptive response of anxiety towards potential threat to increase chance of survival.
WHo conducted research into prepotency?
Ohman and Soares. Measured GSR with masked and unmasked pictures. P's who were scared of snakes or spiders showed a high GSR rating for the masked pictures. anxiety before the stimuli is presented in full awareness
We inherit an innate readiness to learn about dangerous situations, rather than inherting a rigid behavioural response
What did Seligman suggest about biological prepardenss?
Animals are biological prepared to rapidly learn the association between a particular stimuli and fear (vicarious reinforcement)
What are the two key predicitons of prearedness?
We learn certain fears more rapidly
Some fears are harder to unlearn.
What research did Minkea et al do?
Found that learning a fear response through observation doesn't take place for all stimuli. A rhesus monkey learnt a fear of snake but not towards a flower
What did McNally find?
after conditioning a fear iwth a prepared stimulus e.g. a snake and unprepared stimulus, e.g. a flower he found that both fears were learnt the same speed but prepared were harder to unlearn
What is Davey's expectacy bias?
That there is an expectation that fear relevent stimuli will produce negative consequences (e.g. needles)
Name a theory to do with culture bias with evolutionary ..
Brown et al- found that phobic disorders were most common among African cultures even when semi economic factors were controlled. (shows that environment/social factors should be taken into consideration)
An evolutuonary culture evaluation point
Depends upon the culture your in, people in africa worship spiders, in the uk people are scared of them (if it was evolutionary they would all be the same)