Patients who have experienced even minor-appearing head injuries should be suspected of having a brain injury, especially if they:
General treatment guidelines when caring for a woman with traumatic vaginal bleeding include:
Patients with generalized hypothermia are at an increased risk of a local cold injury because:
Of the following musculoskeletal injuries, which is considered to be the LEAST severe?
After administering activated charcoal to a patient, it is MOST important to:
A patient who does not respond to your questions but moves or cries out when his or her trapezius muscle is pinched, is said to be:
Which of the following processes occurs during the inflammation phase of the healing process?
Which of the following statements regarding the rule of nines is correct?
A pleural effusion is MOST accurately defined as:
It is not uncommon for young females who experience their first menstrual period to:
In infants and small children, skin color should be assessed on the:
You respond to a call for a female pedestrian who has been struck by a car. As your partner maintains manual stabilization of her head, you perform a primary assessment. She is unconscious, has ineffective breathing, and has bloody secretions in her mouth. You should:
Which of the following statements regarding blast injuries is correct?
Facial injuries should be identified and treated as soon as possible because:
Many older victims of physical abuse may make false statements or lie about the origin of their injuries because:
You arrive at a local grocery store approximately 5 minutes after a 21-year-old female stopped seizing. She is confused and disoriented; she keeps asking you what happened and tells you that she is thirsty. Her brother, who witnessed the seizure, tells you that she takes phenytoin (Dilantin) for her seizures, but has not taken it in a few days. He also tells you that she has diabetes. In addition to applying high-flow oxygen, you should:
Which of the following physiologic actions does epinephrine produce when given for an allergic reaction?
As red blood cells begin to clump together to form a clot, __________ reinforces the clumped red blood cells.
Capillary refill time is MOST reliable as an indicator of end-organ perfusion in children younger than:
The Centennial Park bombing during the 1996 Summer Olympics is an example of:
A 58-year-old male presents with confusion, right-sided weakness, and slurred speech. His wife is present and is very upset. As your partner is applying oxygen, it is MOST important for you to:
If a patient develops difficulty breathing after your primary assessment, you should immediately:
A patient's short-term memory is MOST likely intact if he or she correctly answers questions regarding:
Which of the following is a normal physiologic change that occurs in the mother's respiratory system during pregnancy?
Signs and symptoms of a tension pneumothorax include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Syrup of ipecac is no longer recommended to treat patients who have ingested a poisonous substance because it:
What maneuver should be used to open the airway of an unresponsive patient with suspected trauma?
Femoral shaft fractures can result in up to _____ mL of internal blood loss.
Patients with thrombophilia are at an increased risk for:
What happens when blood volume is lost from the body?
Common interventions used to stimulate spontaneous respirations in the newborn include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Signs of adequate breathing in the adult include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A young female was involved in a motor vehicle crash. She complains of pain to her left eye, which appears to have a piece of glass impaled in it. Further assessment reveals a large laceration to her left forearm with active venous bleeding. As your partner manually stabilizes the patient's head, you should:
Fetal complications associated with drug- or alcohol-addicted mothers include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Albuterol is a generic name for:
CPR should be initiated when:
Distraction injuries of the spine are MOST commonly the result of:
A 67-year-old male presents with weakness, dizziness, and melena that began approximately 2 days ago. He denies a history of trauma. His blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg and his pulse is 120 beats/min and thready. You should be MOST suspicious that this patient is experiencing:
Pain that may be perceived at a distant point on the surface of the body, such as the back or shoulder, is called:
A patient has fractured both femurs. Anatomically, these injuries would be described as being:
Which of the following injuries would MOST likely occur as a direct result of the third collision in a motor vehicle crash?
In contrast to conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss is caused by:
Burns associated with lightning strikes are typically:
You and your partner are attempting to resuscitate a middle-aged female in cardiac arrest. Because of the remote location you are in, you are unable to contact medical control. What should you do?
A patient with atherosclerotic heart disease experiences chest pain during exertion because the:
Which of the following clinical presentations is MOST consistent with PID?
The cervical spine is composed of _____ vertebrae.
A 75-year-old male with a terminal illness has died at home. As you and your partner enter the residence, a family member becomes verbally abusive, pushes you, and states that you took too long to get there. You should:
Which of the following statements regarding gunshot wounds is correct?
A decrease in the blood pressure may indicate:
The bones of the forearm are called the:
The process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and the blood of the capillaries is called:
Which of the following groups of people is associated with the lowest risk of meningitis?
In contrast to delirium, dementia:
When carrying a patient on a backboard up or down stairs:
Each pelvic bone is formed by the fusion of the:
You are dispatched to a residence for a 56-year-old male with an altered mental status. Upon arrival at the scene, the patient's wife tells you that he complained of chest pain the day before, but would not allow her to call EMS. The patient is semiconscious; has rapid, shallow respirations; and has a thready pulse. You should:
When a person is exposed to a cold environment:
Your unit is dispatched to the county jail for an intoxicated inmate. Upon arrival, you find the patient, a 33-year-old male, lying supine in a jail cell. He is responsive to painful stimuli only and has slow, shallow respirations. You should be MOST concerned that this patient:
When faced with a situation in which an older patient with a terminal illness is in cardiac arrest, but written documentation regarding the patient's wishes cannot be located, the EMT should:
Which of the following is NOT a responsibility of the treatment supervisor?
Which of the following findings is LEAST suggestive of child abuse?
You are transporting an elderly woman who has possibly experienced a stroke. She is obviously scared but is unable to talk and cannot move the entire right side of her body. In addition to providing the medical care that she needs, you should:
Accumulation of blood in the abdominal cavity will MOST likely cause:
You have been tasked by your medical director to assist in the development of your EMS agency's institutional standards. When developing these standards, it is important to:
You are assessing a 45-year-old female who is severely depressed. She states that it seems as though her entire world is crashing down around her. She further states that she has had frequent thoughts of suicide, but is not sure if she can actually go through with it. How should you manage this situation?
When placing a patient onto a long backboard, the EMT at the patient's _________ is in charge of all patient movements.
You are dispatched to the scene of a crash involving a large tanker truck. While you are en route, dispatch advises you that there are multiple patients and that the fire department is en route as well. As you approach the scene, you should:
You are dispatched to a local elementary school for an injured child. As you approach the child, you note that he is lying at the base of the monkey bars. He is not moving and does not appear to be conscious or breathing. You should:
Skeletal muscle is attached to the bone by tough, ropelike fibrous structures called:
If gastric distention is interfering with your ability to adequately ventilate a patient, you may have to:
You are treating a man with a closed head injury following an assault by a burglar. The patient, who has slurred speech, becomes verbally abusive and tells you to leave him alone. You should:
Burns to pediatric patients are generally considered more serious than burns to adults because:
Which of the following is NOT a function of the sympathetic nervous system?
The ________ nerves control the diaphragm.
If a person is standing near a building that explodes, which of the following injuries would he or she MOST likely experience as a result of the pressure wave?
At the scene of an automobile crash, a utility pole has been broken, and power lines are lying across the car. The patients inside the car are conscious. You should:
The third stage of labor begins when the:
Which of the following statements regarding a “dedicated line” is MOST correct?
When controlling bleeding from a scalp laceration with a suspected underlying skull fracture, you should:
Common signs and symptoms of AMI include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Type 1 diabetes:
What type of consent is involved when a 39-year-old mentally competent female with a severe headache asks you to take her to the hospital?
Clinical signs of compensated shock include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A hiker was injured when he fell approximately 20′ from a cliff. When you arrive at the scene, a member of the technical rescue group escorts you to the patient, who is positioned on a steep incline. The MOST appropriate method of immobilizing and moving the patient to the ambulance is to:
While using lights and siren, most state laws permit an ambulance to:
When you begin an oral report, you should state the patient's age, sex, and:
Autism is MOST accurately defined as a:
Which of the following statements regarding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is correct?
When gathering a patient's medications, you find the following: Isordil, Lasix, Motrin, and Digoxin. Which of these medications can be obtained over-the-counter (OTC)?
Immediate transport is indicated for a child when he or she:
Potentially life-threatening consequences of PID include:
Typical chief complaints in patients with an infectious disease include:
The three major parts of the brain are the:
Which of the following MOST accurately describes septic shock?
The primary waste product of aerobic metabolism is:
In what area of the lungs does respiration occur?
Which of the following signs is commonly observed in patients with right-sided heart failure?
In contrast to viral hepatitis, toxin-induced hepatitis:
After performing a primary assessment, a rapid scan of the body should be performed in order to:
When you shine a light into one pupil, the normal reaction of the other pupil should be to:
Deoxygenated blood from the abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities is returned to the right atrium via the:
Bones are connected to other bones by bands of tough fibrous tissues called:
An abdominal aortic aneurysm:
A 37-year-old male has an apparent foreign body airway obstruction. He is conscious and alert and is coughing forcefully. His skin is pink, warm, and moist. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:
Which of the following MOST accurately describes hyperthermia?
Skeletal muscle is also called:
While assisting an advanced life support (ALS) ambulance crew, you are accidentally stuck with an IV needle. You should:
When relaying patient information via radio, communications should be:
A 33-year-old female presents with lower abdominal quadrant pain. She is conscious and alert, but in moderate pain. While your partner is asking her questions about her medical history, you take her vital signs. When you assess her radial pulse, you are unable to locate it. You should:
Kussmaul respirations are an indication that the body is:
You are caring for a 70-year-old female with signs and symptoms of an acute stroke. She is conscious, has secretions in her mouth, and is breathing at a normal rate with adequate depth. You should:
A fracture is MOST accurately defined as a(n):
Which of the following skills or interventions is included at every level of prehospital emergency training?
You are dispatched to a residence for a 67-year-old female who was awakened by shortness of breath and sharp chest pain. Her husband tells you that she was recently discharged from the hospital after having hip surgery. Your assessment reveals dried blood around her mouth, facial cyanosis, and an oxygen saturation of 88%. This patient's presentation is MOST consistent with:
When assessing the pulse of an unresponsive infant, you should palpate the ________ artery.
The primary organ responsible for absorption of products of digestion is the:
Rough handling of a hypothermic patient with a pulse may cause:
A 15-year-old boy was killed when he was struck by a car while riding his bicycle. He has numerous disfiguring injuries and has been placed in the back of the ambulance to shield him from curious bystanders. When the child's parents arrive at the scene, they demand to see him. You should:
When ventilating an apneic adult with a simple barrier device, you should deliver each breath:
You respond to the residence of a 55-year-old female with a possible allergic reaction to peanuts that she ate approximately 30 minutes ago. The patient is conscious and alert, but has diffuse urticaria and the feeling that she has a lump in her throat. As your partner applies oxygen to the patient, you should:
Despite numerous, sincere efforts to convince a 40-year-old man to consent to EMS treatment and transport, he refuses. After explaining the potential consequences of his refusal and determining that he has decision-making capacity, you ask him to sign an EMS refusal form, but he refuses to do that as well. You should:
As the bronchus divides into smaller bronchioles, the terminal ends of these smaller passages form the:
A 28-year-old male was struck in the chest with a baseball bat during an altercation. He is conscious and alert and complains of severe chest pain. Your assessment reveals a large area of ecchymosis over the sternum and a rapid, irregular pulse. In addition to applying 100% oxygen, you should:
When assessing a patient with a possible fracture of the leg, the EMT should:
The _________ contain(s) about 75% of the brain's total volume.
Neurogenic shock occurs when:
Subcutaneous injections deliver the medication:
Which of the following statements regarding anterior nosebleeds is correct?
When a hollow organ is punctured during a penetrating injury to the abdomen:
The ability of a person's cardiovascular system to compensate for blood loss is MOST related to:
Signs of vasoconstriction in the infant or child include:
Which of the following injuries would MOST likely cause obstructive shock?
A 39-year-old male sustained a large laceration to his leg during an accident with a chainsaw and is experiencing signs and symptoms of shock. You should:
After the fetus has descended into the pelvis at the end of the third trimester, many mothers experience:
A 22-year-old male was punched in the abdomen several times. You find him lying on his left side with his knees drawn up. He is conscious and alert and complains of increased pain and nausea when he tries to straighten his legs. His blood pressure is 142/82 mm Hg, his pulse rate is 110 beats/min and strong, and his respirations are 22 breaths/min and regular. In addition to administering high-flow oxygen, you should:
An acute myocardial infarction (AMI) occurs when:
When assessing a patient who is displaying bizarre behavior, the EMT should:
consider that an acute medical illness may be causing the patient's behavior.
In order for a do not resuscitate (DNR) order to be valid, it must:
When a person is standing upright, the weight of anything being lifted and carried in the hands is FIRST reflected onto the:
Upon arriving at the scene of a motor vehicle crash, you find a single patient still seated in his car. There are no scene hazards. As you approach the vehicle, you note that the patient is semiconscious and has a large laceration to his forehead. You should:
You have administered one dose of epinephrine to a 40-year-old female to treat an allergic reaction that she developed after being stung by a scorpion. Your reassessment reveals that she is still having difficulty breathing, has a decreasing mental status, and has a blood pressure of 80/50 mm Hg. You should:
A 50-year-old male is found unconscious in his car. There were no witnesses to the event. When gathering medical history information for this patient, the EMT should:
Blood pressure is usually not assessed in children younger than _____ years.
The large, flat, triangular bone that overlies the posterior thoracic wall is called the:
A 49-year-old male with an extensive cardiac history presents with 2 hours of crushing chest pain and shortness of breath. He is pale and diaphoretic and tells you that he feels like he is going to die. His medications include nitroglycerin, sildenafil (Viagra), and enalapril (Vasotec). His blood pressure is 140/90 mm Hg and his heart rate is 110 beats/min. In addition to administering 100% oxygen, you should:
The skin and underlying tissues of the face:
You should gently palpate a patient's pelvis only if: