MGT ch 14

Question 1 of 77

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An interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of how individuals and groups tend to act in organizations is called

Select one of the following:

  • a. sociology.

  • c. cultural anthropology.

  • d. psychology.

  • e. organizational behavior.

Question 2 of 77

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Which of the following refers to work behavior that goes beyond job requirements and contributes as needed to the organization's success?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Job satisfaction

  • b. Organizational citizenship

  • c. Cognitive dissonance

  • d. Job involvement

  • e. Organizational Commitment

Question 3 of 77

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An evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way is called a(n)

Select one of the following:

  • a. attitude.
    b. authoritarianism.
    c. perception.
    d. projection.
    e. personality.

  • a. attitude.

Question 4 of 77

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The ____ is the beliefs, opinions, and information a person has about the object of an attitude.

Select one of the following:

  • a. affective component
    b. feeling component
    c. cognitive component
    d. behavioral component
    e. dissonance aspect of attitude

  • c. cognitive component

Question 5 of 77

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When Bonnie remarks that she loves the classes she is taking this semester, it refers to which component of attitude?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Knowledge
    b. Behavior
    c. Dissonance
    d. Affect
    e. Cognitions

  • d. Affect

Question 6 of 77

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Kendall, a senior at Morgan University, believes that it is okay to get at "B" but more important to learn in a class than get an easy "A" without learning. Kendall's belief reflects which component of attitude?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Behavior
    b. Affect
    c. Dissonance
    d. Feeling
    e. Cognitions

  • e. Cognitions

Question 7 of 77

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____ refers to a positive attitude toward one's job.

Select one of the following:

  • a. Organizational citizenship
    b. Job satisfaction
    c. Cognitive dissonance
    d. Organizational commitment
    e. Job involvement

  • b. Job satisfaction

Question 8 of 77

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People generally experience ____ when their work matches their needs and interests, when working conditions and rewards (such as pay) are satisfactory, and when the employees like their co-workers.

Select one of the following:

  • a. job involvement
    b. extroversion
    c. cognitive dissonance
    d. Machiavellianism
    e. job satisfaction

  • e. job satisfaction

Question 9 of 77

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Research shows that the link between ____ and ____ is small and is influenced by other factors.

Select one of the following:

  • a. satisfaction; performance
    b. stress; work
    c. stress; home
    d. stress; performance
    e. satisfaction; personality

  • a. satisfaction; performance

Question 10 of 77

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____ refers to loyalty to the heavy involvement in the organization.

Select one of the following:

  • a. Organization citizenship
    b. Job satisfaction
    c. Dissonance
    d. Organizational commitment
    e. Job involvement

  • d. Organizational commitment

Question 11 of 77

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____ is defined as a positive attitude toward one's job.

Select one of the following:

  • a. Occupation approval
    b. Career fulfillment
    c. Job satisfaction
    d. Organizational happiness
    e. Organizational commitment

  • c. Job satisfaction

Question 12 of 77

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Roy is a top executive at a cigarette manufacturing company who believes that cigarettes are dangerous products and they kill people. This condition can be described as

Select one of the following:

  • a. job involvement.
    b. extroversion.
    c. cognitive dissonance.
    d. Machiavellianism.
    e. job satisfaction.

  • c. cognitive dissonance.

Question 13 of 77

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The cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by selecting, organizing, and interpreting information is called

Select one of the following:

  • a. selective retention.
    b. dissonance.
    c. attitude.
    d. perception.
    e. personality.

  • d. perception.

Question 14 of 77

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Which of the following describes the last step in the perception process?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Observing information
    b. Screening the information
    c. Selecting what to process
    d. Organizing the selected data into patterns
    e. Transmitting the observed information

  • d. Organizing the selected data into patterns

Question 15 of 77

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____ is the process by which individuals screen and select the various objects and stimuli that vie for their attention.

Select one of the following:

  • a. Person-job fit
    b. Perceptual selectivity
    c. Organizational citizenry
    d. Projection
    e. Perceptual grouping

  • b. Perceptual selectivity

Question 16 of 77

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____ supports the old truism that first impressions are important.

Select one of the following:

  • a. Contrast
    b. Values and beliefs
    c. Primacy
    d. Personality
    e. Recency

  • c. Primacy

Question 17 of 77

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Doug wants to look his best when he goes for interviewing. He is focusing on which of these perceiver's characteristics?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Contrast
    b. Personality
    c. Needs and motivation
    d. Primacy
    e. Recency

  • d. Primacy

Question 18 of 77

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Which of the following is the tendency to assign an individual to a group or broad category and then to attribute widely held generalizations about the group to the individual?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Stereotyping
    b. Projection
    c. Figure-ground
    d. The halo effect
    e. Perceptual defense

  • a. Stereotyping

Question 19 of 77

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An overall impression of a person or situation based on one attribute, either favorable or unfavorable, is an example of

Select one of the following:

  • a. projection.
    b. the halo effect.
    c. perceptual defense.
    d. stereotyping.
    e. attribution.

  • b. the halo effect.

Question 20 of 77

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Josh evaluates Kandi's performance and gives her an “outstanding” based on his knowledge that she came to work everyday earlier than anyone else and therefore she is extremely hardworking. Josh is making which of these errors in perceptual judgment?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Perceptual defense
    b. Projection
    c. Stereotyping
    d. The halo effect
    e. Figure-ground

  • d. The halo effect

Question 21 of 77

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Which of the following refers to the tendency to see one's own personal traits in other people?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Perceptual defense
    b. Projection
    c. Stereotyping
    d. The halo effect
    e. Figure-ground

  • b. Projection

Question 22 of 77

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____ describes a person who has observed others handle situations in the same way he would.

Select one of the following:

  • a. Distinctiveness
    b. Consensus
    c. Consistency
    d. Conscientiousness
    e. Agreeableness

  • b. Consensus

Question 23 of 77

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The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors on another's behavior and to overestimate the influence of internal factors is called

Select one of the following:

  • a. perceptual distortion.
    b. closure activity.
    c. the fundamental attribution error.
    d. stereotyping.
    e. perceptual grouping.

  • c. the fundamental attribution error.

Question 24 of 77

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The tendency to overestimate the contribution of internal factors to one's successes and the contribution of external factors to one's failures is a result of

Select one of the following:

  • a. self-serving bias.
    b. openness to experience.
    c. over stability.
    d. emotional plateau.
    e. Machiavellianism.

  • a. self-serving bias.

Question 25 of 77

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____ refers to the set of characteristics that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas, objects, or people in the environment.

Select one of the following:

  • a. Dissonance
    b. Personality
    c. Halo effect
    d. Attitude
    e. Perception

  • b. Personality

Question 26 of 77

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The Big Five personality factors includes all of these EXCEPT

Select one of the following:

  • a. extroversion.
    b. conscientiousness.
    c. emotional stability.
    d. locus of control.
    e. agreeableness.

  • d. locus of control.

Question 27 of 77

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Bernice is a talkative, assertive, and sociable individual who is very comfortable with interpersonal relationships. This describes which quality of Bernice?a. Machiavellianism

Select one of the following:

  • a. Machiavellianism
    b. Conscientiousness
    c. Agreeableness
    d. Emotional stability
    e. Extroversion

  • e. Extroversion

Question 28 of 77

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Jay is a trusting and forgiving individual who gets along with others because of being good-natured and cooperative. This describes which of the Big Five personality factors?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Agreeableness
    b. Conscientiousness
    c. Emotional stability
    d. Openness to experience
    e. Extroversion

  • a. Agreeableness

Question 29 of 77

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Which of the following refers to the degree to which a person is focused on a few goals, thus behaving in ways that are responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement oriented?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Agreeableness
    b. Conscientiousness
    c. Emotional stability
    d. Openness to experience
    e. Extroversion

  • b. Conscientiousness

Question 30 of 77

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Which of the following refers to the degree to which a person is focused on a few goals, thus behaving in ways that are responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement oriented?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Agreeableness
    b. Conscientiousness
    c. Emotional stability
    d. Openness to experience
    e. Extroversion

  • b. Conscientiousness

Question 31 of 77

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If Ben is tense, nervous, depressed and insecure, he would tend to be rated as low on which of these factors?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Agreeableness
    b. Conscientiousness
    c. Emotional stability
    d. Openness to experience
    e. Extroversion

  • c. Emotional stability

Question 32 of 77

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Canyon River, Inc. is looking for an individual who has a broad range of interests and is imaginative, creative, artistically sensitive, and willing to consider new ideas. Which of these factors are they emphasizing in their search?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Agreeableness
    b. Conscientiousness
    c. Emotional stability
    d. Openness to experience
    e. Extroversion

  • d. Openness to experience

Question 33 of 77

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Traits of ____ seem to be particularly important in today's collaborative organizations.

Select one of the following:

  • a. likability
    b. agreeableness
    c. friendliness
    d. openness
    e. sociability

  • b. agreeableness

Question 34 of 77

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Managing emotion is a basic component of emotional intelligence. Which of the following best describes managing emotions?

Select one of the following:

  • a. It is the basis for all the other components; being aware of what you are feeling.
    b. It is the ability to balance one's moods so that worry, anxiety, fear, or anger do not cloud thinking.
    c. It is the ability to be hopeful and to persist in the face of obstacles.
    d. It is the ability to be able to put yourself in someone else's shoes.
    e. It is the ability to connect to others and build positive relationships.

  • b. It is the ability to balance one's moods so that worry, anxiety, fear, or anger do not cloud thinking.

Question 35 of 77

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A high degree of ____ means you can accurately assess your own strengths and limitations and have a healthy sense of self-confidence.

Select one of the following:

  • a. self-management
    b. social cohesiveness
    c. social awareness
    d. relationship management
    e. self-awareness

  • e. self-awareness

Question 36 of 77

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Which of the following refers to the tendenacy to place the primary responsibility for one's success or failure either within oneself or on outside forces?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Machiavellianism
    b. Emotional stability
    c. Locus of control
    d. Authoritarianism
    e. Extroversion

  • c. Locus of control

Question 37 of 77

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36. Individuals who believe that they control their own destiny are described as having a

Select one of the following:

  • a. high external locus of control.
    b. high Mach personality.
    c. low introversion characteristic.
    d. high internal locus of control.
    e. low Mach personality.

  • d. high internal locus of control.

Question 38 of 77

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Jason has been unemployed for three months. When his wife asked him why he was not looking for a job, Jason responded, "If I am lucky, I will get my old job back." Jason would be considered as having a(n)

Select one of the following:

  • a. external locus of control.
    b. high conscientiousness.
    c. sensation and intuition type personality.
    d. internal locus of control.
    e. high Mach attitude.

  • a. external locus of control.

Question 39 of 77

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People with an external locus of control are

Select one of the following:

  • a. more achievement oriented.
    b. better able to handle complex information and problem solving.
    c. more independent.
    d. easier to motivate.
    e. easier to lead.

  • e. easier to lead.

Question 40 of 77

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Which of the following terms is the belief that power and status differences should exist within the organization?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Extroversion
    b. Machiavellianism
    c. Authoritarianism
    d. Perceptual distortion
    e. Locus of control

  • c. Authoritarianism

Question 41 of 77

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Individuals high on authoritarianism have problems with

Select one of the following:

  • a. power and toughness.
    b. use of subjective feelings.
    c. sticking to conventional values.
    d. obeying recognized authority above them.
    e. critically judging others.

  • b. use of subjective feelings.

Question 42 of 77

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Which of the following is defined as the tendency to direct much of one's behavior toward the acquisition of power and the manipulation of others for personal gain?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Authoritarianism
    b. External locus of control
    c. Introversion characteristic
    d. Machiavellianism
    e. Organizational citizenship

  • d. Machiavellianism

Question 43 of 77

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42. Research shows that ____ are predisposed to being pragmatic, capable of lying to achieve personal goals, more likely to win in win-lose situations, and more likely to persuade than be persuaded.

Select one of the following:

  • a. high introverted individuals
    b. high authoritarians
    c. high Machs
    d. low extroverted individuals
    e. low Machs

  • c. high Machs

Question 44 of 77

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____ type people, according to Jung, would rather work with known facts and hard data and prefer routine and order in gathering information.

Select one of the following:

  • a. Feeling
    b. Gut-feel
    c. Intuitive
    d. Sensation
    e. Affective

  • d. Sensation

Question 45 of 77

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Which of these styles, according to Jung, avoids specifics, decentralizes decision-making and develops few rules and regulations?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Intuitive-feeling
    b. Sensation-thinking
    c. Intuitive-thinking
    d. Sensation-feeling
    e. None of these.

  • a. Intuitive-feeling

Question 46 of 77

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Which of these styles would likely be appropriate for a counseling job?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Intuitive-feeling
    b. Sensation-thinking
    c. Intuitive-thinking
    d. Sensation-feeling
    e. None of these.

  • d. Sensation-feeling

Question 47 of 77

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The extent to which a person's ability and personality match the requirements of a job is called:

Select one of the following:

  • a. person-environment fit
    b. person-requirement fit
    c. person-job fit
    d. employee-organization fit
    e. employee-environment fit

  • c. person-job fit

Question 48 of 77

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A widely used personality test that measures how people differ on all four of Jung's sets of paired opposites is the ____.

Select one of the following:

  • a. Keirsey personality test
    b. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
    c. Eysenck Personality Test
    d. Enneagram Personality Type Detector
    e. Oxford Capacity Analysis

  • b. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Question 49 of 77

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The extent to which a person will fit into the overall organization is called:

Select one of the following:

  • a. person-environment fit
    b. person-requirement fit
    c. person-job fit
    d. employee-organization fit
    e. employee-environment fit

  • a. person-environment fit

Question 50 of 77

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Which of the following refers to a change in behavior or performance that occurs as the result of experience?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Stress
    b. Conceptualization
    c. Observation
    d. Learning
    e. Distortion

  • d. Learning

Question 51 of 77

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The four stages of the learning process include all of the following EXCEPT:

Select one of the following:

  • a. concrete experience
    b. reflective observation
    c. abstract observation
    d. abstract conceptualization
    e. active experimentation

  • c. abstract observation

Question 52 of 77

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All of the following are fundamental learning styles labeled by researchers EXCEPT:

Select one of the following:

  • a. Assimilator
    b. Disseminator
    c. Diverger
    d. Accommodator
    e. Converger

  • b. Disseminator

Question 53 of 77

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Which of the following describes a person with the learning characteristics of being good at generating ideas and seeing a situation from multiple perspectives?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Diverger
    b. Assimilator
    c. Converger
    d. Accommodator
    e. None of these

  • a. Diverger

Question 54 of 77

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A person with the learning characteristics of being good at inductive reasoning and creating theoretical models is a(n):

Select one of the following:

  • a. diverger
    b. assimilator
    c. converger
    d. accommodator
    e. none of these

  • b. assimilator

Question 55 of 77

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A person with the learning characteristics of being good at decisiveness and practical application of ideas is a(n):

Select one of the following:

  • a. diverger
    b. assimilator
    c. converger
    d. accommodator
    e. none of these

  • c. converger

Question 56 of 77

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Which of the following describes a person with the learning characteristics of being good at implementing decisions and carrying out plans?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Diverger
    b. Assimilator
    c. Converger
    d. Accommodator
    e. None of these

  • d. Accommodator

Question 57 of 77

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Stress can be caused by

Select one of the following:

  • a. task demands.
    b. role demands.
    c. interpersonal demands.
    d. physical demands.
    e. all of these.

  • e. all of these.

Question 58 of 77

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Type A behavior pattern is characterized by all of these EXCEPT

Select one of the following:

  • a. impatience.
    b. devotion to work.
    c. aggressiveness.
    d. relaxed lifestyle.
    e. extreme competitiveness.

  • d. relaxed lifestyle.

Question 59 of 77

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Which of the following is the uncertainty about what behaviors are expected of a person in a particular role?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Role conflict
    b. Task overload
    c. Nonprogrammed decisions
    d. Role ambiguity
    e. Task underload

  • d. Role ambiguity

Question 60 of 77

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All of the following are things bad bosses do to create stress for their subordinates EXCEPT:

Select one of the following:

  • a. Bully and harass people to keep them on their toes.
    b. Create perpetual doubt about how well employees are performing.
    c. Fail to give people credit for their contributions and achievements.
    d. Impose unreasonable demands and overwhelming workloads.
    e. Tell people exactly what is expected of them.

  • e. Tell people exactly what is expected of them.

Question 61 of 77

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____ is considered by many employees to be the most effective work-life practice.

Select one of the following:

  • a. Daily flextime
    b. Offsite childcare
    c. Work from home network
    d. Telecommunication
    e. Reduced work schedule

  • a. Daily flextime

Question 62 of 77

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An individual’s strong belief that he or she can successfully accomplish a specific task or outcome is referred to as:

Select one of the following:

  • a. Locus of control
    b. Self-confidence
    c. Self-efficacy
    d. Perceptual selectivity
    e. Cognitive dissonance

  • c. Self-efficacy

Question 63 of 77

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The general assurance in one’s own ideas, judgment, and capabilities is referred to as:

Select one of the following:

  • a. Locus of control
    b. Self-confidence
    c. Self-efficacy
    d. Perceptual selectivity
    e. Cognitive dissonance

  • b. Self-confidence

Question 64 of 77

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Studies have found that the characteristic most common to top executives is:

Select one of the following:

  • a. A Type A personality
    b. A workaholic mentality
    c. An unsatisfied worker
    d. An optimistic attitude
    e. An introverted personality

  • d. An optimistic attitude

Question 65 of 77

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William wakes up on Monday thinking, “I am going to get to work early this morning, get my tasks done, and help my colleagues with their tasks.” This is an example of which attitude component?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Cognition
    b. Affect
    c. Feeling
    d. Thought
    e. Behavior

  • e. Behavior

Question 66 of 77

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the following are tactics for promoting stronger organizational commitment EXCEPT:

Select one of the following:

  • a. Maintaining a secretive culture
    b. Being honest and trustworthy in business dealings
    c. Giving employees a say in business decisions
    d. Treating employees fairly
    e. Offering employees rewards that they value

  • a. Maintaining a secretive culture

Question 67 of 77

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When Sylvia receives her annual performance evaluation, she makes note of all of the positive statements that her supervisor has made, but subconsciously overlooks a handful of negative comments that are meant to help her improve in the future. This is a classic example of

Select one of the following:

  • a. The halo effect
    b. Stereotyping
    c. Low job satisfaction
    d. Perceptual selectivity
    e. Cognitive dissonance

  • d. Perceptual selectivity

Question 68 of 77

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__________ are errors in perceptual judgment that arise from inaccuracies in any part of the perceptual process.

Select one of the following:

  • a. Attributions
    b. Projected expressions
    c. Perceptual distortions
    d. Secondary perceptions
    e. Personality defenses

  • c. Perceptual distortions

Question 69 of 77

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Ralph is a tireless workaholic who spends most of his time thinking about work, even when not at work. He considers this to be the norm at his place of employment, and believes that his three subordinates are equally committed to their jobs. This is an example of which perceptual distortion?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Stereotyping
    b. Halo effect
    c. Perceptual defense
    d. Personality expression
    e. Projection

  • e. Projection

Question 70 of 77

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Frank regretfully missed an important deadline at work. His boss, George, thinks to himself, “Frank missed that deadline because he is lazy; I really need to crack down on him more.” This is an example of what kind of attribution?

Select one of the following:

  • a. External attribution
    b. Internal attribution
    c. Horizontal attribution
    d. Vertical attribution
    e. Skewed attribution

  • b. Internal attribution

Question 71 of 77

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Rachel is described by her colleagues as pragmatic, super-competitive, and more likely to persuade than be persuaded. She fits which personality category most closely?

Select one of the following:

  • a. High Mach
    b. Low Mach
    c. High Feeling
    d. Low Feeling
    e. Moderate Thinking

  • a. High Mach

Question 72 of 77

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Maliah bases her judgments on impersonal analysis. To resolve problems at work, she uses reason and logic rather than personal values or emotional aspects of the situation. In gathering information, Maliah prefers routine and order. Based on this information, Maliah ranks highly in which Myers-Briggs category?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Judging-Perceiving
    b. Intuitive-Thinking
    c. Sensation-Thinking
    d. Sensation-Feeling
    e. Intuitive-Feeling

  • c. Sensation-Thinking

Question 73 of 77

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Henry, an easy-going and laid back individual, just accepted an attorney position at an elite law firm that is known for its formal and authoritarian culture. What is the fit mismatch that Henry should be concerned about?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Person-job fit
    b. Task-role fit
    c. Job-environment fit
    d. Person-environment fit
    e. Role-person fit

  • d. Person-environment fit

Question 74 of 77

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When managers who express positive emotions such as happiness, enthusiasm, and appreciation trigger these same positive emotions in employees, ___________ is happening.

Select one of the following:

  • a. Perceptual selectivity
    b. Cognitive dissonance
    c. Contagious feeling
    d. Self-efficacy
    e. Emotion contagion

  • e. Emotion contagion

Question 75 of 77

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Seeking positions of power and responsibility, Chandra has rapidly moved up the ranks within her organization. Colleagues describe her as someone with a tremendous amount of energy, and a powerful force for leadership within the organization. Based on this description, Chandra has what type of personality?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Type A
    b. Type B
    c. Type C
    d. Type X
    e. Type Y

  • a. Type A

Question 76 of 77

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Seeking positions of power and responsibility, Chandra has rapidly moved up the ranks within her organization. Colleagues describe her as someone with a tremendous amount of energy, and a powerful force for leadership within the organization. Based on this description, Chandra has what type of personality?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Type A
    b. Type B
    c. Type C
    d. Type X
    e. Type Y

  • a. Type A

Question 77 of 77

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________ conflict occurs when an individual perceives incompatible demands from others.

Select one of the following:

  • a. Attitude
    b. Role
    c. Personality
    d. Perception
    e. Ability

  • b. Role

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carrissa.flores
Quiz by , created over 2 years ago

Quiz on MGT ch 14, created by carrissa.flores on 17/04/2014.

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