What are the cardinal signs?
What is the purpose of the mechanisms leading to the cardinal signs? What are the by proxy effects?
What is the balance that leukocytes must strike when migrating along vessel walls towards a site of tissue damage?
What is diapedesis?
What is required of the blood vessel in order for extravasation to occur?
In the resting, inactivated state, neutrophils 'roll' along the vessel walls. What is happened when they are doing this?
What induces the formation of stronger interactions between neutrophils and the endothelial cells of a vessel wall in the first step of extravasation?
What holds the tissues of our bodies together?
The immune system is unique in that the cells can traverse from one part of the body to another. The same cell adhesion molecules can be used by leukocytes to interact with tissue cells. What are the families of cell adhesion molecules? Which do endothelial express?
How is junctional integrity of the vessel wall maintained when leukocytes extravasate?
Which type of leukocyte is generally the first type to adhere to an inflamed endothelium and extravasate to the site of tissue damage/infection?
Why do neutrophils not bind to non-inflamed endothelium and extravasate?
Which selectin cell-adhesion molecule do neutrophils express in order to adhere to the E- and P-selectins on inflamed endothelium?
Name two chemokines involved in the activation of neutrophils, which results in greater adhesion to Ig-superfamily cell adhesion molecules (due to a G-protein activated conformational change)?
Gradients of additional chemoattractants then guide the neutrophils to the site of infection. Name three chemoattractants which contribute to directed migration and activation of neutrophils by binding to cell membrane receptors.