Muslim mathematicians used Arabic numerals to...
invent the concept of zero.
invent the idea of fractions.
explore astronomical problems.
The Byzantines used eastern customs such as _____ as they moved away from the western traditions.
poorhouses and orphanages
eunuchs and making people prostrate themselves before the emperor
The purpose of the Corpus Juris Civilis was to...
organize and clarify Roman law.
preserve Justinian's innovative law code.
recapture lost taxes.
rewrite the laws that interfered with Justinian's rule.
In 732, the Muslim forces were defeated by...
Pepin the Short.
Germanic women participated in many activities, including agriculture, but their primary responsibilities were...
household care and pottery and textiles.
caring for the cattle.
Gregory the Great extended his power by...
acting as a territorial ruler in addition to acting as head of the church.
refusing to offer financial assistance to distant churches.
convincing the Huns and Vandals to spare Rome.
describing earthy power as two swords, one of which he wielded.
The Umayyad caliphate, located in Damascus, emphasized...
the importance of Mecca.
Part of the motive in prohibiting the worship of icons was...
to compromise with Islam.
challenge the power of icon-producing monasteries.
to promote western values.
to resolve the disputes discussed at the Council of Chalcedon.
Germanic peoples' diet consisted mainly of...
plants, including grains, mead, ale, and milk.
plants and dairy products.
mead and meat.
a healthy combination of proteins and plants.
The establishment of monasteries in Ireland aided the process of conversion because...
Ireland lacked the ecclesiastical structures of the rest of the West.
the monks used knowledge of paganism to convert the Irish.
monks from Briton came to work with the Irish monks.
bishops exercised more authority.
Cassiodorus wrote a historical chronicle, the Origin of the Goths, to show...
that the Goths had a history comparable to that of the Romans.
that the Romans were superior to the Goths.
that Gothic peoples were superior to Romans.
that Theodoric's rule could unite people of different faiths.
The people of Constantinople gathered in the _____ to see the chariot races.
Village families in the Byzantine empire owed...
one equipped man for military service.
service to maintain roads and bridges.
set quantities of grain to supply the army.
one slave to carry out tasks like constructing camps every night.
The Muslims tolerated Jews and Christians because...
they all shared the same scriptures and god.
Christians and Jews had trade relations with Muslims.
Christians and Jews did not resist.
Christians and Jews resisted vigorously, and were granted autonomy.
Ulfila, who helped convert the Visigoths and Ostrogoths, had been influenced by the teachings of...
the Council of Nicaea.
As Germanic pagans and Arians converted to orthodox Christianity, they...
prohibited intermarriage to maintain some ethnic unity.
they learned to read in Latin through the use of Ulfila's vernacular bible.
they began to speak the Romance languages.
they began to speak Greek, the official language of the empire.
The Merovingian family often used _____ as a means of consolidating their rule.
conversion to Christianity
The Lombards ruled for a time in northern Italy until...
the Byzantine empire retook the peninsula.
the Franks conquered them.
the Ostrogoths regained strength.
the papacy rebelled and defeated them.
The _____ brought Christianity to the Slavic peoples.
the Byzantine Empire
Mecca was an important city for which of the following reasons?
It was both a trading center and a site of worship.
It gathered Jews, Christians, and Muslims in one urban center.
It was Muhammad's base when he spread his ideas to the Bedouins.
It was site of the Hijra.
Historians studying the Germanic tribes have learned a great deal from the written sources these peoples left.
Women were used to join families, but this did not necessarily prevent feuds between families.
Both Roman and Germanic males shared the tradition of wearing trousers and capes.
Germanic tribes may have depended upon agriculture, but they preferred warring and plundering for gaining wealth and fame.
The warriors of federate tribes were not allowed to live within the borders of the empire but did receive grain in exchange for fighting other tribes.
When Rome recalled its troops from Britain, the Celtic Britons were eventually pushed out by tribes from Scotland and Scandinavia.
Germanic tribes were able to move into parts of the empire in part because the population in these areas had declined dramatically.
Once the centralized authority of Rome began to disintegrate, church people such as bishops stepped in to manage secular affairs.
The Petrine Doctrine was the claim that the pope's successor was based upon Peter's words to Christ.
Benedict's sister Scholastica founded monasteries for women.
Pope Gregory the Great sent monks to Ireland to convert the pagans.
Clovis' wife refused to convert to Christianity, but when Clovis won a significant battle, she bowed to his will and aided in the conversion of her people.
Boethius was saved from execution by writing about the injustices of life in his most influential work, The Consolation of Philosophy.
When Muslims invaded and conquered most of the Iberian peninsula, they enslaved Christians.
The Nika riot broke out when two rival religious factions revolted against the eastern church.
The Byzantine empire grew rich producing luxury items such as fine fabrics and jewelry.
The Byzantines failed to reform their army, which was underpaid and poorly trained.
The use of Greek in the Byzantine empire accentuated the divisions between east and west as Germanic peoples forgot how to speak it.
In the west, Germanic emperors led the church, but in the east, popes assumed leadership of both church and state.
Cyril and Methodius developed a written Slavonic language to aid the conversion of the Slavic peoples.
The Qur'an is a collection of the revelations that Allah made to Muhammad over a period of twenty years.
Muslim armies were successful during jihads in part because they tolerated the religions of pagans and Jews.
Women's power and status declined under Islam.
The Shiites believed that the caliphate should be led by religious leaders, while the Sunnis believed that leadership should be political.
Muslim medical techniques were highly advanced, and included improvements in both surgery and medicine.