The major active constituent of marijuana THC (Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) is more potent & rapidly crosses the BBB. This is metabolized by the liver to a less potent form (11-hydroxy-Δ-THC ) that does not cross the BBB.
Marijuana has a HIGH first past effect in the liver. It is primarily excreted in the bile with small amounts in the urine for 10 days.
Clinical signs of marijuana toxicity include all of the following EXCEPT:
CNS depression & coma
lethargy & stupor
all of the above are clinical signs
Insoluble Calcium Oxalate Plants:
are all members of the Araceae family
include the Dieffenbachia spp
can often be fatal
have clinical signs that include GI signs, as well as head-shaking, salivation, and voice change
Citrus Oil Extracts such as D-limonene can cause acute necrotizing dermatitis with septicemia in dogs.
What is the initial sign of raisin & grape toxicity associated with acute renal failure?
Pooping out edible cheese curds & concurrent coprophagia (because let's be real, who wouldn't eat cheese curds even if they came from your own butt)
None of the above
Hops (Humulus lupulus) toxicity:
Causes a malignant hyperthermia-like syndrome
Causes death w/in 6 hours in most dogs
Is treated with Dantrolene, a skeletal muscle relaxant
Has a guarded to poor prognosis
All of the above are true yo.
Which plants contain colchicine, a human drug for gout, with the highest concentrations in flowers & seeds?
Christmas plants toxicity generally causes mild GI problems (vomiting & diarrhea), and diagnosis is based on history / clinical signs.
Check all that are true regarding Sago Palm toxicity:
All parts of the plant are toxic
Ingestion of 1-2 leaves can be lethal to a dog
The principal toxin is Cycasin
The toxin causes hepatic necrosis and can be fatal in 2-4 days
I just pooped myself a little and it felt oh so good
Macademia nuts are only toxic to dogs, causing ocular and renal clinical signs.
Cardiotoxic, cardenolide-containing plants can cause death due to asystole.
Two important diagnostic tools to diagnose cardenolide-containing plant toxicity include (click all that apply):
Turkey Pot Pie
Abdominal effusion analysis
What mushroom toxins have diagnostic testing available?
Which mechanism of action is incorrectly paired with its toxin type?
Amatoxins - inhibit RNA polymerase II
Gyromitrin (hydrazines) - direct irritant to GIT --> decreased GABA & increased glutamate --> increased CNS activity
Muscimol (metabolite of ibotenic acid, a isoxazole) - increases membrane permeability for anions --> hyperpolarization & decreased neuronal excitability
Muscarine - similar structure to Ach --> competes at parasympathetic, muscarinic receptors in PNS --> SLUDDE
All answers are correct.
Which mushroom is INCORRECTLY paired to the system affected?
Muscarine = GI, respiratory
Isoxazoles = CNS, GI
Psilocybin = CNS
Amatoxins = GI, CNS, renal
Hydrazines = GI, CNS, hematopoietic
All are correct.
False parasol (Chlorophyllum molybditties) is a common mushroom that can be found on lawns singly or in fairy rings, commonly causing CNS signs.
This mushroom toxicity causes massive hepatic and acute renal necrosis and involves a treatment to help prevent liver uptake of the toxin. It is the most lethal and causes 95% mushroom fatalities in humans.
Mushroom of Doom