What is the process that converts glucose to pyruvate?
What is average blood glucose?
Name 5 symptoms of hypoglycaemia
In hyperglycaemia, ________ can be modified without _______ because glucose is very ________. This can lead to conditions such as _________, and modify lipoproteins important in ____________.
What is another risk in hyperglycaemia?
What mechanisms are used to lower blood glucose? (3)
What mechanisms are used to raise blood glucose? (2)
Where is most glycogen synthesised?
At which stage of glycolysis is glycogen synthesised?
What protein is associated with glycogen?
What is glycogen?
Where is glycogen found?
Why can glucose not be stored in its natural state?
Glycogen is a much more efficient way of storing glucose. 400mM of glucose can be stored as _______ glycogen.
Why can fat not be used as the energy store? (3 reasons)
1. G-6-P is converted to _______
2. The G-1-P molecule is converted to ____-______ by the enzyme ____-________ __________________, using a molecule of ____. This activates the _________ molecules so they will readily _______.
3. ___-______ combines with _________ and a chain forms with multiple molecules of ____-_______, under the action of the enzyme __________ _________.
4. When the chain is approx ___ residues in length, a ________ _________ removes the last ___/___ residues and moves them down the chain to form a _______.
What is the advantage of having many branches?
What kind of links exist between the chain and branches?
What kind of links exist between each UDP-Glucose molecule in the chain?
Which enzyme removes the alpha 1-4 links between glucose molecules?
Which enzyme converts the resultant G1P back to G6P in a reversible reaction?
What are the 2 possible fates of this G6P?
Once the chain of glucose is too short on a branch, ____________ moves all but the last residue onto the end of the original chain.
When there is a single glucose residue left on a branch, ___________ _________ removes the _________ __ __ bond and leaves a single _________ molecule.
If this occurs in the liver, it will be exported to the ______ ______ to raise _______ ________ levels. In muscle, it will be converted to ___ ___ ___ and enter __________ to produce ______.
Which enzyme converts G6P to glucose? Where is it found?
Mobilisation of glycogen is so efficient because multiple ____________ molecules bind to each glycogen particle at the same time.
Glycogen phosphorylase is a _______-_______ complex, and can be activated by _____________.
Which enzyme phosphorylates the inactive phosphorylase b to the active form?
Breakdown of glycogen can be stimulated by hormones binding to the cell membrane. Examples are ________ and __________. They stimulate the ____ pathway to cause increased ______ and _____ inside the cell. It is the _____ which phosphorylates and therefore activates ____________ ___ ________ enzyme, so that ________ __________ can be activated.
PKA also phosphorylates ___________ _________ to its inactive form so that ____________ of __________ is inhibited.
Which ion can also activate phosphorylase b kinase?
How is a raise in calcium achieved in muscle and liver cells?
Which molecule indicates the muscle cell is low on energy?
When levels of this are high in muscle cells, __________ __________ __ can be activated without ______________ by the enzyme.
Similarly, when levels of _____ are high, the muscle cell does not need more energy so _____ binds to the same active site and ________ activation of ___________ _____________.
This is also inhibited by ___________ __ _________.
In the liver, high levels of ________ will inhibit activation of ___________ _____________.
What activates glycogen synthase? (3)
What inactivates glycogen synthase?
What is another fate of glucose 6 phosphate apart from forming pyruvate in glycolysis and being stored as glycogen?
What is the resultant product of this?
This pathway produces 2 molecules of ______ which can be used to synthesise ______ _________.
This process also releases one molecule of _____.
What is the name of the pathway which converts pyruvate back to glucose?
Where does the majority of this take place?
What are the 3 main substrates for gluconeogenesis?
In the __________ of the cell, _______ gets converted to pyruvate and combined with ________ to give ____________ ______, using the enzyme ___________ ____________.
Oxaloacetic acid is combined with more ______ ______ to give _________ ________, using the enzyme ____________ __________ _____________.
Phosphoenol pyruvate is combined with __________ (another 3C molecule) to produce ____________ __ __ ____________. This reaction does not require an enzyme, it is reversible.
The enzyme ________ ___________ breaks this down to __ __ __, which is broken down further by _______ __ _________ to give glucose.
Where is the pyruvate formed?
In the reactions to produce oxaloacetic acid from pyruvate, the oxaloacetate must be transported out of the matrix in the form of ________, before the rest of the reaction can take place in the ________.
What stimulates gluconeogenesis?