Treating all lab specimens as if they are hazardous and infectious is the basis for ______?
patient quarantine systems
quality assurance programs
hazardous waste controls
If you have received vaccination for Hepatitis B, what would be the next most common exposure?
West Nile virus
Microorganisms that cause disease are _____?
None of the above
The most frequent LAB nosocomial infection is ______?
A patient who has diarrhea or gastroenteritis bacteria is placed in which type of isolation?
When a patient needs to be protected because they have an immune system compromise, they are placed in _______?
When a patient has a highly contagious illness, they are placed in which type of isolation?
OSHA regulates and enforces standard precautions.
Hepatitis C is not a threat to healthcare workers.
AIDS is an example of a blood-borne disease.
An incident report is not necessary after a needle stick.
All needles must be placed in a sharps container.
Lab coats are not contaminated and can be worn in the cafeteria.
On the National Fire chart, "O" is the most dangerous.
Contamination means unclean.
OSHA stands for Occupational Safety and Health Administration
AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
An evacuated tube system for venipuncture consists of all but which one of these items?
Vacuum collection tube
Which of these factors will result in failure to obtain blood during collection?
Leaving tourniquet on the arm
Patient taking medication
Insufficient needle depth
Making a fist
A tube holder (adapter) that has been visibly contaminated with blood should be disposed of in _______?
a sealed bag
the regular trash
biohazard waste container
The greatest number of phlebotomist drawing injuries occur with the use of ________?
butterfly needles (winged infusion sets)
evacuated tube draws
When using tubes with additives, how soon after collection should mixing begin?
As soon as the tube clots
As long as it's within 5 minutes
Immediately after collection
An adapter for a vacuum tube system is called a vacuum tube holder.
Blood drawn in a non-additive tube, and then centrifuged, yields plasma.
An anticoagulant prevents blood from clotting.
A butterfly needle (winged infusion set) is used for hand veins and difficult draws.
As the gauge of a needle gets bigger, the interior bore of the needle gets bigger.
The tourniquet is used in venipuncture to find and enter into the vein more easily.
EDTA is in which color tube?
Heparin is in which color tube?
Which color tube has no additive?
Sodium citrate is in which color tube?
ACD is in which color tube?
What does post prandial mean?
Before a meal
After a meal
What is blood in the urine called?
A word meaning "kidney" is ____.
A word meaning "liver" is ____.
A prefix that means "a decreased amount" is ______.
A prefix meaning "an excessive amount" is ____.
A prefix meaning "without" is ____.
The suffix meaning "surgical incision" is _____.
The word meaning "inflammation" is _____.
The word meaning vein is ______.
Which gland is often called the master gland?
What is the main function of the kidneys?
To store urine
To eliminate fluid waste products
To aid in the digestive process
The systemic veins carry ______.
deoxygenated blood away from the heart
deoxygenated blood back to the heart
oxygenated blood to the heart
oxygenated blood away from the heart
Which body system is primarily involved with breathing?
The heart is part of which system?
A patient who stays overnight in the hospital is called a/an _________?
Which body system filters blood to eliminate waste, help maintain blood pH, and regulate water balance?
The hematology department is involved in testing _______.
red blood cells
white blood cells
All of the above
What is the most common test run in hematology?
A urinalysis involves running a chemical test on urine.
Platelets are involved in blood clotting.
Arteries carry blood back to the heart.
Veins are bigger than arteries.
Plasma is the liquid part of the blood.
There is more pressure on veins than arteries.
Venous blood is used most often for blood tests.
The buffy coat contains white blood cells and platelets.
Red blood cells have hemoglobin and carry oxygen to cells.
The study of blood is called hematology.
What additive is in the lavender collection tube?
Both EDTA and Ethyleneadiaminetetraacetic acid are correct
What additive is in the red speckled (SST) collection tube?
Gel with serum separation
What additive is in the green collection tube?
What additive is in the red collection tube?
Clot activator gel
What additive is in the grey collection tube?
Both sodium fluoride and potassium oxalate
What additive is in the light blue collection tube?
Sodium polyanethole sulfonate
Which tube would be used for hematology testing (ex.: WBC)?
Lavender top tube
Light blue top tube
Red top tube
Green top tube
Which tube would be used for a serum specimen?
Speckled top tube
Both speckled and red top tubes
Which tube needs to be chilled for coagulation studies?
Yellow top tube
Which vein is used most often for venipuncture?
The tourniquet is placed how far above the antecubital area?
How much blood does the average adult have?
How many times should a collection tube with an additive be inverted?
Which needle has the smallest gauge?
Which can be used for a finger stick collection?
What does OSHA stand for?
Occupation Safety and Health Administration
Occupation Safety and Health Association
Occupational Safety and History Association
Occupational Supplies and Health Association
When drawing blood using additive tubes, the phlebotomist must remember all but which one of these collection requirements?
Mix tubes to keep the blood from clotting
Fill the tubes until all vacuum has expired
Fill in the correct order
Keep tourniquet tied until last tube is filled
Tiny clots may appear in anticoagulated tubes due to ________.
centrifuging too slowly
an inadequate amount of blood
In hospitals and clinics, the most frequently used needle has a ______ gauge.
The depth of a heel puncture cannot exceed _______.
The fragile skin of very ill infants may require phlebotomists to find an alternative for which post-puncture step?
Using adhesive tape
Removing the tourniquet
Calming the infant
There are many bruises on both arms of a 5-year-old child who has had CBCs drawn every day for a month. What collection change could be considered next for the daily CBCs until the bruises have healed?
Microcollection by fingerstick
Venipuncture in the ankle
Using smaller collection tubes
Trying a syringe draw from the forearm
To reduce pain when performing venipuncture on a child, a physician can apply ______ to the skin.
topical anesthetic (EMLA)
a tighter tourniquet
If low weight infants have too much blood drawn, they may be in danger of _____.
What should be used to help bleeding on an infant heel?
An ice compress
Lancing with the grain
Pre-warming the heel
Which would be least appropriate in pediatric venipuncture?
Winged infusion set (butterfly needle)
1 or 3 cc syringe
15 gauge needle
Squeezing the finger too vigorously during collection can cause erroneous lab test results due to ________.
blood cell concentration
clotting at the puncture site
dilution with tissue fluid
Capillary blood collection would be a good choice for testing when ______.
multiple tests are ordered
veins are fragile or bruised
large amounts of blood are needed
pure arterial blood is required
Finger puncture on adults is most often performed on the ______.
First or second finger
Third or fourth finger
Heel or foot
Which is the preferred location for an infant heel puncture?
Medial or lateral aspect
The proper technique for collecting capillary blood is _______.
use the thumb because it is the largest
puncture more than once to get good flow
squeeze hard to get the blood quickly
wipe away the first drop of blood
Pre-warming the heel of an infant encourages bleeding.
The finger should be punctured at an angle perpendicular to the fingerprint.
When the tourniquet is placed on too tight, capillaries may rupture, causing _______.
What factors should be considered in site selection prior to venipuncture?
Scars and burns
Veins that are hard and cord-like are called ______.
When a tourniquet is left on a patient's arm too long, which of the following can occur?
The term that means rupturing of red blood cells is _____.
Which of the following is probably the most common complication from phlebotomy?
Which procedure is generally performed by a nurse or respiratory therapist?
Glucose tolerance test
Arterial blood gases
Heel stick on infant
IV bleeding time
Aspirin may affect a patient's ______.
blood culture results
bleeding time (platelet function analysis)
A hematoma can be prevented if _______.
pressure is placed on the vein until bleeding has stopped
a bandage is placed on the vein after the needle is removed
the needle is removed before the tourniquet is released
The accumulation of extravascular fluid in the arm is called _______.
Cleanse the vein in a circular motion from the center to the ______.
opposite side you started from
The angle of a needle entering a vein should be ______.
A woman who has had a mastectomy ______.
poses no complications for blood draws
can have an increased risk of infection on the mastectomy side
will always have problems from tourniquet use
should never have blood drawn again
Edema can cause _______.
swelling in venipuncture site
dilution of the blood sample
difficulty in feeling veins
When a patient becomes faint, symptoms might include _______.
When a hematoma starts to form while drawing blood, ignore it until you fill all tubes needed.
Tubes should be labeled after the blood is drawn.
Order of tube draw is not important.
Anchoring a vein prevents it from rolling.
A thrombosed vein is often chosen for venipuncture.
Keeping the tourniquet on for too short a time causes hemoconcentration.
The color of normal serum is usually straw to yellow.
When should a phlebotomist follow universal precautions?
When a patient is known to be infectious
While working in a hospital laboratory
Whenever a phlebotomy procedure is performed
What type of protection must a phlebotomist use?
The proper way to dispose of a needle is to ____.
put it in the sharps container
throw it into a biohazard bag
activate the safety feature and put it in the sharps container
collect all needles in a cup and dispose of them later
What should a phlebotomist do first when a patient has a fainting episode while having their blood drawn?
Apply a cold compress
Remove the needle
Remove the tourniquet
Use an ammonia inhalant
Wheat is the correct ending procedure?
Remove needle, apply pressure
Remove tourniquet, remove needle, apply pressure
Remove tourniquet, remove tube, remove needle
Remove tourniquet, remove tube, remove needle, apply pressure
This OSHA regulation requires that all healthcare personnel receive vaccinations for ________.
A specimen may be rejected by the lab if ______.
the tube is not full
the specimen hemolyzed
the tube was not transported properly
The best way to locate a vein is to _______.
ask the patient where their best veins are
memorize the diagram of arm veins
palpate (feel) the antecubital space with your finger
When labeling tubes, the following information should be included, except _______.
patient name and birth date
time of collection
When identifying a patient, the phlebotomist must _____.
ask the patients name and date of birth
just draw the patient - no questions
check paperwork or chart
Both ask the patients name and date of birth and check paperwork or chart
As written in the patient bill of rights, s patient has the right to _____.
know the name of the phlebotomist
Inspecting the bevel prior to drawing, the phlebotomist looks to see if ______.
there are defects
there are burrs
the bevel is facing upward
If a phlebotomist is accidentally stuck with a needle, they should ______.
put a bandage on it
tell their supervisor
rinse with water
lick their finger clean
If a patient has an IV in their arm, the phlebotomist should _____.
draw blood from the IV line
ask the nurse to remove the IV
draw blood from below the IV line
draw blood from above the IV line
Tourniquets should remain in place for _______.
at least 3 minutes
the entire time of the draw
no longer than 1 minute
Which of these specimens is normally sterile?
If a tube breaks while centrifuging, what action would be best?
Evacuate room, open lid, remove tube with forceps
Open lid, stop centrifuge, remove tubes wearing gloves
Let centrifuge stop, open lid, remove tube with forceps
Tip centrifuge over and shake tubes out
Drawing areas and the lab are decontaminated with what percentage bleach?
Which is a common disinfectant used for collecting blood cultures?
The rubber sleeve on an evacuated tube needle makes it possible for use with _____.
A possible tube breakage during centrifugation might be due to _______.
too much blood in the tube
an unbalanced centrifuge
not enough blood in the tube
centrifuging for too long
Which national organization that establishes standards for phlebotomy procedures recently changed its name to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)?
HIPAA requires the Department of Health and Human Services to establish national standards for _________.
continued access of health insurance
electronic health care transactions
Medicare and Medicaid
improving clinical laboratories
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid regulate all laboratory testing that is performed in the US through _____.
CLIA (Clinical Lab Improvement Amendment)
HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act)
ASCP (American Society for Clinical Pathology)
JCAHO (Joint Commission on Accreditation Healthcare Organization)
Which globally recognized, voluntary organization develops and distributes standards and guidelines to improve medical testing?
In order to monitor therapeutic drug levels, the lab needs to know the ______.
pharmacy name and number
number of pills left to take
time of last dose taken
time of next dose to be taken
What initial patient preparation is required for a glucose tolerance test (GTT)?
Make sure the patient has eaten at least 2 hours before
Ask the patient whether insulin has been taken yet
Make sure patient has been fasting fro 10-12 hours
Make sure to collect a first morning urine specimen
Which of the following has the highest incidence among healthcare workers?
To confirm diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia, what test would be ordered?
Postprandial sucrose test
Lactose intolerance test
Hemoglobin A1C test
Which of these is considered a time-dependent test?
A glucose meter is an important way to monitor the medical condition of patients with ________.
systemic lupus erythematous
iron deficiency anemia
Whenever a glucose meter is cleaned or its batteries are changed, it is crucial to ______.
call clinical support for assistance
recheck monitor with controls
notify the manufacturer for QC instructions
double-check the next couple of patient tests
One possible cause for finding fibrin strands in serum tubes after centrifugation might be _____.
centrifuging before the tube has formed a clot
centrifuging at too high of a speed
centrifuging after a long delay
If samples collected for urinalysis and blood testing are accidentally lost for 2 weeks, can they still be used?
Yes, if the tops have not been opened.
Yes, if tested in the next 24 hours.
Yes, if they are refrigerated until tested.
Why do phlebotomists use a tourniquet?
To elevate blood pressure
To dull the pain at the needle site
To help locate veins in the antecubital area
To distract the patient while drawing
Two samples are sent to the lab in the same bag. Both tubes have the same patient name written on them but two different requisitions. What is the best action to take?
Call the physician to ask if it's okay to run the samples.
Ask the patients if they can identify their sample.
Arrange to recollect both samples.
Just guess which tube matches which paperwork.
Which of these is not an example of parenteral transmission of an infection?
Infection through a hangnail
Needle stick injury
Drinking contaminated water
Which lab test evaluates extrinsic coagulation function?
Prothrombin time (PT)
Extracorpeal circulation workup (ECC)
Lupus anticoagulation test (LAT)
Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)
A cholesterol panel provides the most useful information to the physician if it is drawn _____.
without a tourniquet
along with electrolytes
right after a fatty meal
while the patient is fasting
Which of the following tests should be kept warm after collection and delivered to the lab as soon as possible?
Type and crossmatch
OSHA requires training and educational information be given to phlebotomists on all but which of the following topics?
Preventing identification errors
Needle safety and handling
Glass and sharps disposal
According the the College of American Pathologists (CAP), phlebotomists are involved primarily in which phase of lab testing?
None are correct
The National Fire Protection Association labels would use which color and number to indicate that a chemical is easily dispersed in air and will burn readily?
The abbreviation QNS would be written on a requisition for redraw because ______.
the patient was combative
the test was cancelled earlier
there wasn't enough specimen to run tests
the patient was an easy draw
The right to know law requires chemical manufacturers to supply what information along with their products?
Free fire extinguishers
Material Safety Data sheets
Radioactive warning signs
Ensuring that services and results compare with accepted standards is the foundation for ______.
coefficient of variation
Healthcare workers can demonstrate an awareness of safety in hospital corridors by ______.
turning corners carefully to avoid collisions
quickly reporting items that require clean up
granting right-of-way to patients and emergencies
Why is it important to keep a record of all patient specimens collected and tested?
For pre-analytical quality control
For analytical quality control
For post-analytical quality control
To meet AMA guidelines
Which of these diseases is caused by a blood-borne pathogen?
Communications between physicians and patients are considered privileged, which means that medical records are ______.
confidential in nature and protected
not open to the patients themselves
freely open to anyone
accessible to any healthcare worker
When mailing blood specimens to a reference lab, the outside label should clearly show ______.
biohazard warning sign
"In case of breakage, send to CDC"
full name and address of lab
Which of these is not part of the Patient Bill of Rights?
Right of refusal of treatment
Right to select preferred caregivers
Right to informed consent of care
Right to accurate information about care
Medical ethics defines conduct within the medical profession that is deemed to be _____.
moral or immoral
right or wrong
related to malpractice
As part of the quality assurance process that ensures accuracy in lab test results, healthcare workers who collect and perform lab testing must demonstrate ongoing ______.
AIDS stands for ______.
autoimmune deficiency symptoms
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
acquired infectious disease state
accidental inflammation disease state
The federal government requires that specimens be transported or shipped in what type of container?
Containers used to dispose of sharps must have all these characteristics except being ______.
The purpose of quality control is to ______.
list all mistakes made
ensure that patient care is provided
If a patient becomes combative while having his/her blood drawn, the phlebotomist should _____.
force patient to stay still
transfer control to [of?] patient
ignore patient and refuse to draw them
report patient to security
The primary methods of performing a venipuncture include ______.
butterfly (winged infusion set)
The preferred method used for cleaning a venipuncture site is _____.
soap and water
The proper method of locating a vein is _____.
applying cold water
memorizing a diagram of the arm veins
using a blood pressure cuff
The average depth of skin puncture is _____.
The evacuated tube used for coagulation tests is _________.
light blue top
The preferred finger when performing skin puncture is the _____.
third or fourth finger
The evacuated tube used for blood (typing) banks is ______.
The evacuated tube used for chemistry is ______.
red or marble top
Serum is collected from what color tube?
Both red and marble top
Plasma is collected from what color tube?
Both green and lavender top
The tube of choice for hematology is _______.
The vein most often used for venipuncture is the _______.
What is the additive in lavender top tubes?
What is the additive in green top tubes?
What is the additive in grey top tubes?
What is the additive in light blue top tubes?
What is the additive in red top tubes?
What is the correct order of draw?
Lavender, red, light blue, yellow, green
Yellow, red, light blue, lavender, green
Red, light blue, yellow, lavender, green
Yellow, light blue, red, green, lavender
Tourniquets should remain on the arm for how long?
Entire time of draw
As long as you want
Excessive milking of a skin puncture ______.
can cause the blood sample to be hemolyzed
should be avoided
can cause dilution with tissue fluid
Patients with diarrhea/gastroenteritis bacteria are placed in _____.
When a patient is highly contagious, they are placed in ______.
While working in a hospital
The proper way to dispose of a needle is to ______.
put it in a sharps container
throw it out in a biohazard bag
activate the safety feature and put it in a sharps container
collect a bunch in a cup and dispose of them later
Microorganisms that cause a disease are _____.
pathogens or pathogenic
When a tourniquet is placed on too tightly, what can happen?
The tourniquet is placed how far above the draw site?
Factors to consider in site selection when drawing are ________.
scars or burns
Veins that are hard and cord like are called ______.
Collection tubes with additives need to be inverted ______.
as many times as desired
When a tourniquet is left on the arm too long, _______ can happen.
a collapsed vein
What is the most common complication for phlebotomy?
Which of the following means thrombocytopenia?
Low white blood count
Low platelet count
Low red blood count
Low blood level
Thrombophlebitis means _____.
a blood clot in the heart
a hard blood draw
inflammation of a vein with a clot
inflammation of the thyroid gland
Proper technique for collecting capillary blood is to _______.
puncture more than once to get more blood
squeeze hard to get blood quickly
draw from the IV line
ask a nurse to remove the line
draw from below the IV line
not draw blood
Which is not proper venipuncture technique?
Clean arm with alcohol
Apply pressure when done drawing
Release tourniquet before removing the needle
Label tubes before drawing the patient
The most important step in performing venipuncture is ______.
selecting needle size
collecting enough blood
identifying the patient
positioning the patient
Sharps containers must have all characteristics except being _____.
Which is a possible route of infection during venipuncture?
The process by which an object or area becomes unclean is _____.
Clots in additive tubes can be caused by ______.
inadequate amount of blood
Within the capillaries, blood cells _____.
give away oxygen
pick up carbon dioxide
pick up waste products
Characteristics of capillaries include _______.
being thin walled in structure
forming microscopic pathways
connecting arterioles with venules
Blood cultures require sample collection in ______.
anaerobic and aerobic bottles
CO2 and sterile saline bottles
anaerobic and CO2 bottles
aerobic and sterile saline bottles
Which of the following is most likely to cause contamination during blood culture collection?
Letting the betadine dry between steps
Cleansing the bottle tops as well as the draw site
Re-palpating the draw site with a prepped finger
Rushing the drying process
Which of these additives is commonly found in blood culture tubes?
A hemogram includes all of the following except _____.
red blood count
white blood count
blood sugar level
Blood specimens are centrifuged in order to ____.
separate the cells from the serum or plasma
separate platelets from white blood cells
remove interfering substances
separate red blood cells from white blood cells
Signs of syncope may include ____.
All of the following can cause a hematoma except ______.
excessive probing of the needle
removing the tourniquet before the needle
placing the needle only partially in the vein
placing the needle all the way through the vein
The average adult has approximately how much blood?
Red blood cells are also called ______.
Aspirin may have an effect on which patient test?
The outer-most layer of the heart wall is called the ______.
Veins carry ____.
oxygen-poor blood away from the heart
oxygen-poor blood back to the heart
oxygen-rich blood back to the heart
oxygen-rich blood away from the heart
Which gland is called the master gland?
When drawing for therapeutic drug levels _____.
trough level is drawn after dose is given
trough level is drawn before dose is given
peak level is drawn before dose is given
Not important to know
Accumulation of extra fluid under the skin is called ________.
Which chamber of the heart has the thickest myocardium?
The right atrium
The left atrium
The right ventricle
The left ventricle
Which artery in the wrist is used for blood gases?
A hemogram is collected in which tube?
Light blue top
The smallest veins in the body are known as ____.
When unclotted blood is centrifuged, what is on top?
Which lab test evaluates extrinsic coagulation?
Rapid plasma reagiin
Activated partial thromboplastin (APPT)
Speed of centrifuge in RPMs can be checked using a ______.
water purity meter
When making a blood smear, the spreader slide is made of _____.
What does the lab need to know in order to monitor therapeutic levels?
Number of pills taken
Time of last dose
If eaten with food
A bed patient in a hospital is called a(n) ______.
Negligence by a professional is called ______.
invasion of privacy
Lack of physical or mental fitness is called _____.