Puberty is an example of a universal age-related change that is studied by lifespan psychologists. These types of changes are:
A. Unique and unshared.
B. Historically bound.
C. Culturally shaped.
D. Biologically based
One disadvantage of cross-sectional designs for the study of age-related changes is that these designs are:
C. Cannot reveal whether any change observed is due to the individual’s age or cohort.
D. Subject to practice effects.
In Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual stages of development, the development of a sexual
identity is the psychological task associated with which one of the following stages?
Caroline is currently working through issues around what pathway she’d like to pursue in her life. Currently, she is unsure of what work role she wants to take up. She doesn’t know what spiritual path to follow, nor whether she wants to be in a long-term partnership and raise a family. In Erikson’s (1953) model of psychosocial development, you would place Caroline in which one of the following poles of the psychosocial crises?
Margaret is an older adult whose eye-sight has become progressively compromised as she has approached her 70s. Margaret has always loved to read, but finds that her eyesight is now so poor, she cannot see the text. In order to enable her to continue her enjoyment of reading, her health professional has recommended that she embrace audio-books instead. Margaret has purchased a collection of audio books and finds she is learning as much, if not more, from listening to the books. Which lifespan developmental theory can best describe Margaret’s experience?
Paul Baltes's SOC.
Daniel Levinson’s seasons of a woman’s life.
Berneice Neugarten’s social clock.
Erik Erikson’s psychosocial stages.
Which of the following statements is true concerning the foetal stage of development?
The foetus is unable to learn.
The foetus’s eyelids are still closed.
The foetus can respond to light but not touch.
The foetus can breathe regularly for 24 hour periods.
Teresa is a 12 month old infant. Over which part of her body is she most likely to have
At three years of age, Samantha should be able to do all of the following activities, except
Rock on a swing.
Kick a ball forward.
Hold a pencil to make marks.
Pearl was 15 years old in 1860. Elissa was 15 years old in 1979. Which of the following statements about Pearl and Elissa at 15 years of age is most likely to be true?
Pearl would have been taller and heavier than Elissa.
Pearl would have experienced menarche, whereas Elissa would not.
Elissa would be taller and heavier than Pearl would have been.
Elissa would be less likely to be obese than Pearl.
At least five theories have been proposed to account for the process of ageing in human beings. According to which theory does ageing occur as a consequence of oxidative changes to DNA and cellular structures?
Free radical theory.
Hormonal stress theory.
Harry is currently 8 years of age. His brother, Jordan, is 11 years of age. Compared with Harry, Jordan will be more likely to be successful in which of the following Piagetian conservation tasks?
Ahmed has recently had his third birthday. On his birthday, his grandparents telephoned him from overseas as a surprise. Ahmed felt suddenly shy, and rather than responding to his grandparents, he nodded, shook his head and smiled at various points in their conversation. Piaget would argue that Ahmed’s behavior reflects:
The ability to order quantifiable events on a continuum has been defined by Piaget as:
Giovanni is 11 years of age and is about to commence high school. His new high school values traditional models of classroom learning, in which Giovanni has been shown to excel. After a pre-entry assessment, which Giovanni blitzed, the teachers at his new school decided to place Giovanni in Year 8 due to his high grades. According to Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory, in which type of intelligence is Giovanni most likely to specialize?
At birth, which substructures of the brain are the most mature?
Medial temporal lobe
Baby Mario turns 10 months this month. Which of the following gestural symbols is he most likely to be using?
Flipping the bird to his mother.
Giving his older sister the finger.
Waving his hand when his grandparents are leaving the house.
Shrugging his shoulders when he is asked a question.
The smallest grammatical unit in a language is a ________, and can be ________ and ________.
Phoneme; Free; Bound.
Morpheme; Rule based; Bound.
Phoneme; Bound; Rule based.
Morpheme; Free; Bound.
In the Dunstan system, a baby’s cry that has an “oh” sound, accompanied by an “o” shape of the baby’s mouth, is most likely to mean that the baby is:
Parvati is 24 months of age. According to Nelson (1973), an example of a word that she is most likely to be using is:
Which milestone of language development has been specifically identified as being a necessary prerequisite for the development of theory of mind (i.e., deducing other’s mental states)?
Habib is six months of age. He doesn’t like to sleep and is wary of any change to his routine. He tends to be irritable, and expresses his moods intensely. According to Chess, Thomas and Birch’s (1963) basic temperament clusters, Habib is most likely demonstrating a temperamental style that is:
Slow to warm up
Given the evidence that suggests that temperament may be stable over time, we might expect Habib to demonstrate which one of the following qualities in adolescence?
Which one of the following is not an aspect of attachment systems?
Research has demonstrated that of the four parenting styles identified by Diana Baumrind (1991), authoritative parenting is the most effective in terms of positive outcomes for children. All of the following statements explain the success of authoritative parenting, except:
The control exerted by parents leads to a strong peer orientation in children.
Parents are able to balance restrictiveness with autonomy.
Parents’ engagement in verbal give and take with their children facilitates their
children’s intellectual development.
The warmth of the parent-child relationship encourages children’s identification
with their parents, promoting strong attachment.
Tori is an 18 year old adolescent. Her parents are members of a right wing political party, and have encouraged Tori to join the junior membership of the party. Wanting approval from her parents, Tori has joined the party, and actively supports the party’s negative perceptions of social welfare and migrants. According to James Marcia’s (1967) identity status theory, Tori is most likely to be in which identity status?
The process of adopting standards of right and wrong that serve as guides and deterrents for conduct is known as:
Susan is eight years old and finds her school work really challenging. Her parents have told her that if she is able to get full marks in her next class test, they will buy her a bicycle. When Susan sits next to Ben, the best student in her class, she is unable to resist the temptation to copy his answers. According to the research, as an adolescent, Susan might be expected to be described by her parents as:
Susan is eight years old and finds her school work really challenging. Her parents have told her that if she is able to get full marks in her next class test, they will buy her a bicycle. When Susan sits next to Ben, the best student in her class, she is unable to resist the temptation to copy his answers. But after she copied Ben’s answers, she felt terrible! She felt even worse when her parents rewarded her with the bicycle for doing so well in her tests, especially as she knew they would never approve of her cheating. She felt worthless and bad, and began to have trouble sleeping. She stopped wanting to go to school. According to Freud’s theory of moral development, Susan is being punished by her:
Susan is eight years old and finds her school work really challenging. Her parents have told her that if she is able to get full marks in her next class test, they will buy her a bicycle. When Susan sits next to Ben, the best student in her class, she is unable to resist the temptation to copy his answers. According to Kochanska (2002), Susan might be especially likely to demonstrate guilt after her transgression if she:
Has a fearful temperament
Has a mother who uses power assertive disciplinary techniques.
Has a slow to warm up temperament.
Is able to articulate the rules that outline why cheating at school is unethical.
Pauly is five years old and has recently developed tonsillitis. He has been told by his family doctor that he will need to go to hospital to have the tonsils removed. Pauly believes that his sickness is a punishment from God for unintentionally tripping his baby brother who is just learning to walk. According to Piaget (1932), Pauly is showing:
Soula is a first year university student. She’s been set an assignment for one of her psychology classes, where she has to administer the Heinz dilemma to three people of different ages. She selects her younger sister, Olympia as one of her research participants. After reading the dilemma to Olympia, Soula asks her what Heinz should do. Olympia thinks. She says to Soula: “It is never right to steal. But Heinz’s wife is suffering and he is her husband. If he is a good man, then he has an obligation to her to do what he can to save her. Their relationship is more important than anything else, even if Heinz is punished and has to give up his own life in jail”. According to Kohlberg (1969), Olympia is showing moral reasoning that would be best classified as:
Level II, Stage 4: Law and order.
Level II, Stage 3: Good boy/Good girl.
Level III, Stage 5: Social Contract.
Level III, Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles.
Soula is a first year university student. She’s been set an assignment for one of her psychology classes, where she has to administer the Heinz dilemma to three people of different ages. She selects her younger sister, Olympia as one of her research participants. After reading the dilemma to Olympia, Soula asks her what Heinz should do. Olympia thinks. She says to Soula: “It is never right to steal. But Heinz’s wife is suffering and he is her husband. If he is a good man, then he has an obligation to her to do what he can to save her. Their relationship is more important than anything else, even if Heinz is punished and has to give up his own life in jail”. According to Gilligan (1982), Olympia is showing moral reasoning that would be best classified as:
Transitional: Selfishness to responsibility
According to Levinson’s (1980) theory of adult development, the stage that establishes a bridge between adolescence and adulthood is known as:
Settling down and becoming one's own man.
The age 30 transition
Entering the adult world.
The early adult transition
According to Levinson’s (1980) theory of adult development, all of the following are tasks that must be achieved during the mid-life transition, except
Creation of new life structure for the successful negotiation of mid-life.
Working towards advancement
According to timing of events models of development, adult development is most likely to proceed smoothly when:
Normative life events occur at times at which they are not anticipated.
Normative life events occur at the times at which they are anticipated.
Non-normative life events occur.
Non-normative life events never occur.
According to Ginzburg (1984), when adolescents consider their personal values and priorities in life, as well as their occupational lifestyle, they are most likely to be in which of the following stages of career development?
Ahmed is currently considering career options that he can pursue after finishing school. Ahmed is very detail and organization oriented, and finds value and success in accuracy and time management. According to Holland’s (1985) theory of vocational preferences, Ahmed would find least satisfaction in a(n):
Researchers have suggested that parents, peers and partners are important influences on adolescents’ career choices. All of the following have been suggested by evidence to account for this powerful influence, except:
Parents, peers and partners are important role models.
Parents provide opportunities for occupational and educational attainment.
Parents, peers and partners provide a value context within which choices about occupation must be made.
Through the process of gender intensification, parents, peers and partners promote overly rigid adherence to sex-role stereotypes.
According to Hazan and Shaver (1990), individuals who show a secure attachment to their partners:
Invest in their career because they fear being demoted at work, or losing their jobs.
Immerse themselves in their careers as a defensive strategy aimed at avoiding intimacy.
Are preoccupied with competing at work.
Approach their work with enthusiasm and express high levels of career based satisfaction.
Graham is the CEO of a technology firm which consults to the finance sector. He has held this position for more than twenty years, but recently has been experiencing an inner turmoil and uncertainty around his career. He’s started to question the ethics of big business and whether he shouldn’t be doing something more philanthropic. As part of this mid-career crisis, Graham can expect to experience all of the following, except:
Increased awareness and re-evaluation of life’s priorities in relation to time.
A cooling down of ambitious striving.
Some redirection of subsequent work efforts
The process by which children develop a gender identity that is consistent with their biological sex is known as:
According to Levy (1985), prenatal brain specialization may be responsible for all of the following sex differences, except:
Girls’ greater vulnerability to birth defects.
Boys’ higher reported levels of aggression.
Boys’ superior visual-spatial and mental rotation skills.
Girls’ higher reported levels of major depression.
Teresa is four years of age. Her older brother, Mario, takes her Barbie doll and dresses her in the combat gear that his parents bought him for his GI Joe action toy. Mario tries to tell Teresa that her doll is now a boy. Teresa, however, recognizes the doll as Barbie, and informs her brother that he is dumb. According to Kohlberg (1969), Teresa is demonstrating a sense of:
David and Michael have been in a long term committed relationship for fifteen years. According to research, their relationship might be different from that of their long-time friends, Sarah and Mathew, in all of the following ways, except:
David and Michael will be more dependent upon each other for social support than their families.
David and Michael’s relationship will be more egalitarian.
David and Michael will not regard sexual fidelity as important to their relationship.
David and Michael’s primary arguments will concern non-responsiveness, their partners and sexual issues.
According to the results of surveys of the sexual behaviours of adolescents, emerging adults and young adults, all of the following findings are FALSE, except:
Females have more casual sexual partners than males.
Emerging adults have sex have sexual intercourse more frequently than young adults.
Emerging adults have sexual intercourse with more people than young adults.
Males are more selective than females about their choice of sexual partners.
Chandra and Parvati have been dating for six months. Their relationship is characterized by intense sexual attraction, but they also have a mutual affection for each other. Chandra and Parvati have dinner dates on Saturday evenings, where they confide in each other about their hopes and dreams. However, they haven’t as yet planned any future together. According to Sternberg’s (1988) triarchic theory of love, Chandra and Parvati are demonstrating:
According to research examining the effect of attachment style on intimacy, individuals with an avoidant attachment style are more likely than individuals with secure or anxious-ambivalent attachment styles to:
Offer help to their partners in order to gain their partner's approval.
Express high levels of regard for others
Associate love with drama and apprehension.
Engage in little self-disclosure.
Manny is a 45 year old man who has just joined dating site, OK Cupid. He is looking for a woman who is 18 years of age, who is at least 154cm tall, blonde, who smokes and drinks and who has no strong religious or political beliefs. She must also be down to earth, enjoys having fun and socializing. (The name and dating site have been changed to protect the guilty!) According to Lee’s (1973) Colours of Love theory, Manny is demonstrating:
The type of marriage in which each member of the couple specializes in particular roles and has a distinct sphere of influence in the home as determined by personal preference, rather than cultural tradition, has been described as:
Women tend to experience a decline in their levels of marital satisfaction after the birth of their first child. Which of the following is a situation in which this decline is not likely to be experienced?
The woman evaluates her career as important.
The woman’s partner is not supportive.
The woman has a child with a difficult temperament.
The woman does not take up the idealistic, stereotypic images of motherhood that are common in contemporary society.