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How many years ago do most scientists believe life on Earth began?
3 thousand (3 * 10^3)
3 million (3 * 10^6)
3 billion (3 * 10^9)
Which of these are methods of fossilisation?
Anoxic or hypoxic conditions in animal decay
Presence of bacteria in animal decay
Preservation of the bones, teeth, shells or claws of an animal
Preservation of rootlets, burrows, footprints and droppings
Having an animal die between two rocks
Preservation in ice preventing decay
Animals dying due to disasters such as volcanoes
Mineralisation of body parts
True or false? The skeletons of animals must be covered in sediment before they can be fossilised.
True or false? Mineralisation (turning of the skeleton to rock) occurs in the presence of oxygen and over a short period of time.
Which of these are reasons why the fossil record is incomplete?
Nineteenth-century scientists didn't realise the value of fossils so they were discarded during geological experiments
Most early organisms had soft bodies which didn't fossilise well
Animals decayed more easily due to higher numbers of bacteria, leading to fewer fossilisations
Geological activity such as erosion and melting of rock has destroyed many fossils
True or false? The shark's fossils look very similar to the modern animal due to its adaptations being perfect for its environment.
The earliest ancestor of the modern horse, Equus, is believed to be Hyracotherium. Equus has only one toe in its forefeet, but Hyracotherium has four. What can we learn from this fossil evidence?
That Hyracotherium was better adapted to eating insects than grass
That Hyracotherium was better adapted to walking on soft ground, rather than running on hard ground
That Hyracotherium died out with the dinosaurs 65mya
What is extinction?
The forcible removal of an animal from its natural habitat
A cull enforced by a government, such as the British badger cull
The permanent loss of all members from a species
What type of extinction-causing organism is the grey squirrel in the UK?
A new predator
A new disease
A new competitor
True or false? Hedgehogs were introduced to North Uist to remove garden slugs, but are eating the chicks of rare sea birds instead.
When, according to scientists, was the last Ice Age on Earth?
10,000 years ago
100,000 years ago
1,000,000 years ago
True or false? Mammals survived the dinosaur extinction as they could control their own body temperature.
Which of these years saw mass extinctions? (mya = millions of years ago)
True or false? There are no alternative theories to the extinction of the dinosaurs.
True or false? Scientists have discovered that the crater in Chicxulub was caused by an asteroid 65mya due to bands of iridium running around the crater.
Which of these are types of environmental isolation?
Formation of a new mountain range
Building a canal splitting two fields in half
One area of grassland becoming warmer than others
Introducing trees with wider canopies into one area of forest
Which stage follows isolation in the process of speciation?
Inability to interbreed
Which organisms are most likely to breed?
Those with favourable alleles for the environment
Those with hindering alleles for the environment
Those with neutral alleles for the environment
True or false? The defining feature of a species is that it can interbreed with no other.
What is meant by the term endemic?
Relating to organisms that live in only one area
A disease concentrated in one area
Relating to organisms that live on peninsulas