Baroque period, 1700s, 18th century (1741). Chorus from the oratorio called the Messiah. One affection - joyful - major key, triple time
Mainly homophonic - parts move together. Some polyphonic passages with different melodies at the same time. Imitation - parts copying each other.
Mainly diatonic (uses notes from the key). Uses mainly primary chords, I, IV, V. Clear cadences, perfect cadences throughout plagal cadence (IV-I) at end.
4 key themes set to each line of text: Idea 1 = opening triad, syllabic, stepwise, ascends; Idea 2 = melisma, sequence; Idea 3 = repeatedx3, outlines V/I (E/A), stepwise; Idea 4 = long, pedal notes, affirmative statement.
SATB choir = the chorus. Small string orchestra. Basso continuo with organ.
Mainly syllabic (1 note per syllable). Some melisma (several notes per syllable).
Allegro - lively at start. After a tutti 'silence', adagio slow ending.
In 3/4 =triple time. 4 key motifs feature long notes, repeated rhythms, and dotted rhythms. End of the intro - hemiola - makes the music feel like it is in 2 at same time.
Determined by Handel's use of the 4 key motifs. Instrumental introduction.
Mainly loud (forte), fortissimo at end.
Terraced. General pause before final cadence (silence).