Psychology Final Exam

Question 1 of 101

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During the oral psychosexual stage, if oral needs are not met appropriately, an individual may develop such habits as

Select one of the following:

  • extreme messiness and disorder

  • hostility toward the same-sex parent

  • sexual promiscuity

  • fingernail biting and overeating

Question 2 of 101

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In Erickson's theory, the psychological conflict of basic trust versus mistrust is resolved on the positive side when

Select one of the following:

  • the balance of care is sympathetic and loving

  • toddlers are successfully toilet trained

  • hunger is consistently satisfied

  • the parents are perfectly in tune with their baby's needs

Question 3 of 101

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The United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand, and nearly all of the countries in Europe are examples of _______.

Select one of the following:

  • developed countries

  • developing countries

  • collective countries

  • individualistic countries

Question 4 of 101

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_____ cultures emphasize independance and self-expression, whereas _____ cultures emphasize obedience and group harmony

Select one of the following:

  • Individualistic; collective

  • Collective; individualistic

  • Developed; developing

  • Developing; developed

Question 5 of 101

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Children learning English and other Western languages fast-map which parts of speech earliest?

Select one of the following:

  • nouns

  • verbs

  • modifiers

  • adjectives

Question 6 of 101

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In a town in England, the wings of a local butterfly species had a black and white pattern. Over the years, as air pollution worsened in the town, a coat of black soot often covered everything. From an evolutionary perspective, which of the following is a logical sequencing.

Select one of the following:

  • Butterflies became blacker because the one with relatively more black on their wings were most likely to blend in with the sooty background

  • Butterflies became lighter because the only ones with relatively more white on their wings were least likely to blend in with the sooty background

  • Butterflies became more aggressive because their behaviors were altered by the toxins that were in the black soot

  • Butterflies morphed into moths because environmental conditions triggered an unfolding of a hidden gene

Question 7 of 101

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Sigmund Freud divided human development into ______ stages.

Select one of the following:

  • psychosexual

  • psychosocial

  • psychobiological

  • psychocognitive

Question 8 of 101

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Which of the following comprise Freud's theory of personality

Select one of the following:

  • id, ego, superego

  • conscious, collective unconscious, subcortical unconscious

  • the self, the shadow, the anima

  • real self, fear self, future self

Question 9 of 101

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Stranger anxiety first appears at what age?

Select one of the following:

  • 3 months

  • 6 months

  • 1 year

  • 2 years

Question 10 of 101

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Which of the following statements is true about correlation coefficients?

Select one of the following:

  • the sign of the number refers to the strength of the relationship

  • a negative correlation coefficient means that the two variables are not related to each other

  • a positive correlation coefficient implies that as one variable increases, the other also increases.

  • the magnitude of the number shows the direction of the relationship

Question 11 of 101

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Twelve-year-old Ross lives in a country with very low governmental standards for public education. As a result, he is barely literate. The public policies that impact Ross's education are part of the

Select one of the following:

  • mircosytem

  • mesosystem

  • macrosystem

  • exosystem

Question 12 of 101

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Which of the following research methods permits inferences about cause-and-effect relationships?

Select one of the following:

  • structured interview

  • naturalistic observation

  • experimental design

  • correlational study

Question 13 of 101

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In the cross-sectional design

Select one of the following:

  • groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time.

  • participants are studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes are noted as they get older

  • participants are presented with a novel task, and researchers follow their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions

  • the investigator conducts several sequences and make cross-sectional comparisons

Question 14 of 101

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How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?

Select one of the following:

  • 23

  • 46

  • 69

  • 92

Question 15 of 101

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Fred was born into a family with high musical talent. Both his parents were professional musicians who encouraged and fostered his music development. Throughout childhood he practiced the guitar whenever he could and eventually became a professional musician himself. Which of the following best describes Fred's genotype?

Select one of the following:

  • Fred's musical genes

  • Fred's musical talent

  • Fred's nurturing parents

  • Fred's musical genes and talent

Question 16 of 101

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If the gene for curly hair is dominant and the gene for straight hair is recessive, from a dominant-recessive pairing, which of the following would be an individual's phenotype?

Select one of the following:

  • straight hair

  • curly hair

  • dominant-recessive

  • their complete genetic makeup

Question 17 of 101

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Single gene pairs play a crucial role in development. However, it is more common that developmental outcomes occur because of the interaction of multiple genes. This is known as ______.

Select one of the following:

  • inheritability

  • polygenic inheritance

  • bimodal inheritance

  • single dominance

Question 18 of 101

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Research on private speech suggests that young children

Select one of the following:

  • are more likely to talk to themselves when tasks are too hard

  • are more likely to talk to themselves when tasks are appropriately challenging

  • talk to themselves because they have difficulty taking perspective of others

  • with learning and behavior problems rarely use private speech

Question 19 of 101

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Fred and George are identical twins. Ashton and Michael are fraternal twins. Which of the following statements is true?

Select one of the following:

  • Ashton and Michael have the same genetic makeup

  • Fred and George have the same genetic makeup

  • Ashton and Michael are more genetically similar than Fred and George

  • Fred and George are genetically no more alike than ordinary siblings

Question 20 of 101

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The _________ is the longest prenatal period

Select one of the following:

  • period of the embryo

  • period of the zygote

  • period of the fetus

  • first trimester

Question 21 of 101

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A teratogen is

Select one of the following:

  • any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period

  • a limited time span during which a part of the body is biologically prepared to develop rapidly

  • a neurological growth period for the fetus

  • a synthetic hormone used to prevent miscarriage

Question 22 of 101

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If baby Jaymie has a combined Apgar score of 7, doctors should

Select one of the following:

  • hand her to her parent, as she is in good physical condition

  • provide immediate emergency assistance

  • put her in an incubator

  • provide some assistance in establishing breathing

Question 23 of 101

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Tiffany is a small-for-date baby. This means she

Select one of the following:

  • was born several weeks or more before her due date

  • was born below her expected weight considering the length of the pregnancy

  • will probably have much less serious problems than a preterm infant

  • may have difficulties in infancy but will outgrow them by the preschool years

Question 24 of 101

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The function of the Babinski reflex is

Select one of the following:

  • to protect the infant from strong stimulations

  • linked to human evolutionary past, and may have helped an infant cling to the mother

  • to prepare an infant for voluntary reaching

  • unknown

Question 25 of 101

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Professor Glossner proposes that the heritability of temperament is .80. Which of the following statements does Professor Glossner propose?

Select one of the following:

  • a large portion of temperament is determined by genetics

  • a large portion of temperament is determined by environment

  • 80% of temperament is determined by the X chromosome

  • 20% of temperament is determined by the X chromosome

Question 26 of 101

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When concordance rates are higher amun monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins, this indicates which of the following?

Select one of the following:

  • there is partially a genetic basis

  • there is partially an environmental basis

  • there is a 100% evironmental cause

  • there is a 100% genetic cause

Question 27 of 101

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What needs to dilate 10 centimeters (4.5 inches) during the process of labor?

Select one of the following:

  • the cervix

  • the uterus

  • the fallopian tubes

  • the ovaries

Question 28 of 101

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The second stage of the birthing process is called

Select one of the following:

  • labor

  • delivery

  • transition

  • crowning

Question 29 of 101

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Which of the following best describes a cesarean delivery?

Select one of the following:

  • a delivery process that take longer than normal

  • when the cervix is dilated to 10 cm wide

  • surgically opening the mother's abdomen and retrieving the baby directly from the uterus

  • when the fetus is turned around so that the feel or buttocks is presented in the birth canal first

Question 30 of 101

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What makes delivery much more difficult for the women?

Select one of the following:

  • lying flat on her back

  • squatting

  • kneeling

  • leaning back on a hammock

Question 31 of 101

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Accordingly to Jean Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory, children

Select one of the following:

  • actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world

  • acquire new social values as sexual instincts die down

  • gradually become more selective in what they imitate

  • develop within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment

Question 32 of 101

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According to Piaget's theory, cognitive development begins in the ______ stage.

Select one of the following:

  • sensorimotor

  • preoperational

  • concrete operational

  • formal operational

Question 33 of 101

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Dr. Winsock often designs flowcharts to map the precise steps that her research participants use to solve problems and complete tasks, much like the plans devised by programmers to get computers to perform a series of "mental operations." Dr. Winsock probably subscribes to which of the following theories of development?

Select one of the following:

  • psychoanalytic perspective

  • information-processing approach

  • social-cognitive approach

  • ecological systems theory

Question 34 of 101

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According to Vygotsky, _______ is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture.

Select one of the following:

  • social interaction

  • reinforcement

  • discipline

  • independance

Question 35 of 101

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Lorenzo first develops the ability to control his chest, then his arm, then his hand, and finally his fingers. This progression of motor development is called the ______.

Select one of the following:

  • cephalocaudal principle

  • thoracictorso principle

  • phalange-metatarsal principle

  • proximodistal principle

Question 36 of 101

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When neuronal connections that are used become stronger and faster and the neuronal connection that are not used wither away, what is happening?

Select one of the following:

  • brain death

  • axonal withering

  • synaptic pruning

  • intellectual development

Question 37 of 101

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The text describes orphanages in Romania in which all of the infants had been seriously deprived. The children were later adopted and recovered dramatically in physical development. It was found that the recovery in cognitive development

Select one of the following:

  • recovered rapidly for all children

  • was dependent on the age in which the children were adopted

  • did not occur for any of the children

  • not only recovered quickly, but the children outperformed other children very rapidly

Question 38 of 101

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When you are visiting friends who just had a newborn, you notice that the baby is lying face-down in her crib. What do you tell your friends?

Select one of the following:

  • that their daughter looks peacefully asleep

  • that is the best position for an infant to be in

  • that they need to have her on her back because lying face-down puts her at risk for SIDS

  • their daughter might grow up with a flat nose from being laid on her stomach

Question 39 of 101

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________ in infants was first demostrated in a classic experiment by Eleanor Gibson and James Walk (1960) with their use of a table called the "visual cliff"

Select one of the following:

  • depth perception

  • fine motor skills

  • attachment

  • temerament

Question 40 of 101

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Which of the following describes the normal sequencing of language development?

Select one of the following:

  • words, cooing, babbling

  • words, babbling, cooing

  • babbling, cooing, words

  • cooing, babbling, words

Question 41 of 101

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In what type of speech do adults talk to infant by raising the pitch of their voices, exaggerating their intonation, and repeating words?

Select one of the following:

  • baby talk

  • nuero-stimulating speech

  • infant-directed speech

  • slowed-down speech

Question 42 of 101

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Your friends have just had a baby, it is now two weeks old and you notice that its moods are generally positive, it adapts well to new situations, and does not have extreme emotional reactions. What do you know about her personality? She is probably ______.

Select one of the following:

  • an easy baby

  • a difficult baby

  • a slow-to-warm up baby

  • an undifferentiated baby

Question 43 of 101

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Which of the following are the five primary emotions?

Select one of the following:

  • jealousy, joy, shame, lust, and surprise

  • guilt, joy, envy, embarrassment, and happiness

  • embarrassment, surprise, jealousy, joy, and hurt

  • anger, fear, disgust, surprise, and happiness

Question 44 of 101

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You have been a life-long smoker, but you quit at the end of last week because you know how damaging it is to your health and you do not want to be a bad influence on your son, who is a toddler. You walk into your son's room and you find him acting like he is smoking with a crayon. According to Piaget, what is you son doing?

Select one of the following:

  • secondary circular reactions

  • deferred imitation

  • object permanance

  • action memory

Question 45 of 101

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Your nephew loves cats. You have a large black cat that you named "Midnight." Your nephew readily learned your cat's name, but now calls all cats "Midnight." Surely your nephew does not think that every cat's name is "Midnight." Why is this happening? Your nephews behavior is an example of ________.

Select one of the following:

  • overextension

  • underextension

  • telegraphic speech

  • holophases

Question 46 of 101

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_____ is the difference between skills or tasks that children can accomplish alone and those they are capable of performing if guided by an adult or a more competent peer.

Select one of the following:

  • self efficacy

  • animism

  • zone of proximal development

  • deferred imitation

Question 47 of 101

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Under normal conditions conditions young children use their primary attachment figure as a _______.

Select one of the following:

  • source of nutrition

  • secure base

  • source of entertainment

  • source of education

Question 48 of 101

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In this type of attachment, these these toddlers are less likely to explore any toys when the mother is present and they show greater distress when she leaves the room. When she returns they run to greet her, but then push away when she attempts to comfort or pick them up.

Select one of the following:

  • secure attachment

  • insecure-avoidant attachment

  • insecure-resistant attachment

  • disorganized-disoriented attachment

Question 49 of 101

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Pneumonia, malaria, and measles are common causes of death for children in ______.

Select one of the following:

  • developing nations

  • developed nations

  • collective cultures

  • individualistic cultures

Question 50 of 101

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Identical twins have a _________ genetic similarity and are more likely than ordinary siblings to _____

Select one of the following:

  • 50%; differ in handedness

  • 100%; differ in handedness

  • 50%; be similar in handedness

  • 100%; be similar in handedness

Question 51 of 101

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What stage emphasizes that children were unable yet to perform mental operations?

Select one of the following:

  • sensorimotor

  • proportional

  • concrete operational

  • formal operational

Question 52 of 101

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You are visiting your sister who has 4-year-old twins. They ask if they can have some milk and you are pouring it for them. One glass that you chose was tall and thin and the other was short and wide. After you poured the milk your niece is very unhappy because you gave “more” milk to your nephew. You actually gave each of them the same amount, but your niece and nephew lack the mental ability to ____.

Select one of the following:

  • conserve

  • operate

  • center

  • tertiary operate

Question 53 of 101

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Which of the following statements best captures why a child may fail the conservation task?

Select one of the following:

  • “They can reverse the action mentally and can see that the amount of water is the same.”

  • “They fail to understand that the amount of water remains the same even though the appearance of the water changes”

  • “They tend to pick the photo that matches their own perspective, not the dolls.”

  • “They frequently attribute human thoughts and feelings to stuffed animals and dolls, often thoughts and feelings they have themselves.”

Question 54 of 101

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You just came back from class in which the topic was egocentrism in the proportional stage. You have a 4-year-old and thought you would see if what you learned was accurate. You are sitting directly across from her and ask her to look at the front and back cover of her favorite book. After she did this you asked her to describe “the part of the book that I am looking at” What does she say?

Select one of the following:

  • how many pages there are in the book

  • what you see

  • what she sees

  • what the story is about

Question 55 of 101

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What happens to the IQ gains that occur as a function of low-income children participating in the Project Head Start program?

Select one of the following:

  • the gain are maintained throughout life.

  • the gains result in even greater gains throughout life

  • the gains fade within two or three years

  • there were actually no real IQ gains

Question 56 of 101

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Phrases like “please,” “thank you,” and “bye-bye” are examples of ____.

Select one of the following:

  • the pragmatic quality of language

  • the morphemic quality of language

  • the grammatical quality of language

  • how prosody varies within language

Question 57 of 101

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What term describes the understanding that maleness and femaleness are biological and connot change?

Select one of the following:

  • gender development

  • gender constancy

  • gender roles

  • gender identity

Question 58 of 101

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What is a distinctive feature of authoritative parents?

Select one of the following:

  • they are quite passive in their responding

  • they do not care whatsoever what their children do

  • they respond with anger to questions from their children

  • they explain the reasons for their rules and expectations to their children

Question 59 of 101

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If you were an authoritative parent, how would you handle a child who only wanted to eat a banana split for dinner? You would say, ____

Select one of the following:

  • “It would be much better to eat a healthy dinner first and have a banana split for dessert if you are not full”

  • “Great, let’s go for it!”

  • “Absolutely not, under no circumstance will I allow that!”

  • “Whatever, I don’t care.”

Question 60 of 101

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During middle childhood, children become ____ susceptible to disease, ___ vulnerable to the effects of malnutrition, and ______ likely to have accidents that result in injury or death.

Select one of the following:

  • less;less;less

  • less;less;more

  • less;more;more

  • more;more;more

Question 61 of 101

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Your roommate and you are having a discussion of the “Westernization” of many developing countries. You are concerned about the ill effects of some of the Western culture. In terms of healthy weight of children in developing countries, why would you be concerned about the potential changes in their diets that can come with Westernization? Children in developing countries ____.

Select one of the following:

  • can now get pre-packaged Western foods that contain precisely the nutrients that they require

  • require that their diets contain flouride because of the great risk of tooth decay

  • need extra calories to be healthy and Western diets are not sufficient

  • are eating more unhealthy foods as a result of Western diets

Question 62 of 101

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Ashton is shown two round balls of clay equal in size. He watches as the experimenter rolls one ball into a long sausage shape and ask which of the shapes has more clay. If Ashton is in Piaget’s preoperational stage he will reply, _____.

Select one of the following:

  • “the long on”

  • “they are both the same”

  • “the ball”

  • “I can’t tell”

Question 63 of 101

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If Julia is taller than Anna and Anna is taller than Lynn, Julia must be taller than Lynn. According to Piaget, what concepts does this question illustrate?

Select one of the following:

  • parallelism

  • seriation

  • conservation

  • transitive inference

Question 64 of 101

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Your sister-in-law is amazed at her 9-year-old son. She can remember when her son was not able to sit and listen to a story for very long and now he is able to listen intently and remember the story in very good detail. What two advances occur during middle childhood in information processing abilities that assist with his newly developed abilities?

Select one of the following:

  • visual scanning and search routines

  • attention and memory

  • motivation and diligence

  • decentering and critical processing

Question 65 of 101

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What is the disorder referred to when difficulties in maintaining attention?

Select one of the following:

  • attention persistence disorder

  • attention deficit disorder

  • attention control disorder

  • attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Question 66 of 101

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____ is a person’s capacity for acquiring knowledge, reasoning, and solving problems.

Select one of the following:

  • intelligence

  • personality

  • temperament

  • attachment

Question 67 of 101

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Every child has a genetically based ___ for intelligence, meaning a range of possible developmental paths.

Select one of the following:

  • reaction range

  • heritability ratio

  • standard deviation

  • variance from the mean

Question 68 of 101

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Great inventors such as Leonardo da Vinci, Benjamin Franklin, and Alexander Graham Bell all possess which of Sternburg’s triarchic theory of intelligence?

Select one of the following:

  • creative intelligence

  • practical intelligence

  • analytical intelligence

  • logical-mathematical intelligence

Question 69 of 101

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Ms. Silman proposes that children learn how to read best when they are taught to examine the overall meaning of words, rather than breaking down each word into its smallest component. She encourages her students to guess at the meaning of words they do not know, based on the context of the word within the poem or story. Which of the following does Ms. Silman practice in her classroom?

Select one of the following:

  • phonics-based reading

  • a while-language approach to reading

  • sight word-based reading

  • literacy-based rating

Question 70 of 101

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Assume that you have a friend who is bilingual and is contemplating whether or not to teach her child both English and Spanish. Based on the research, which of the following should be your response?

Select one of the following:

  • “It is generally not recommended to teach bilingualism as it is too much for the child to handle. Their brains are just not ready for it.”

  • “If you want your son to be bilingual it is recommended that you wait until he is at least 14 to teach the second language. The brain is further developed at a later age.”

  • “Most of the research for bilingualism is positive. Sometimes children have difficulty with syntax; however, it is better to learn a second language sooner than later.”

  • “If you teach your child both English and Spanish his teacher will become frustrated and take it out on his grades. It is generally not recommended.”

Question 71 of 101

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In middle childhood, children become more capable of going about their daily activities without constant monitoring and control by others. They are better at functioning independently, with a little guidance from others, also called _____.

Select one of the following:

  • independant regulation

  • coregulation

  • unilateral regulation

  • we-regulation

Question 72 of 101

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Researchers have described four categories of social status. Which children were the ones who most often were rated as “liked” and rarely rated as “disliked”?

Select one of the following:

  • popular

  • rejected

  • neglected

  • controversial

Question 73 of 101

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Pubertal changes begin when a threshold of ____.

Select one of the following:

  • body fat is reached

  • a specific age is reached

  • specific hight is reached

  • after the rites of passage has occurred

Question 74 of 101

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Your little sister, who is 13, has a bust that is visibly increasing. What type of sex characteristic describes this change?

Select one of the following:

  • primary sex characteristics

  • secondary sex characteristics

  • tertiary sex characteristics

  • quaternary sex characteristics

Question 75 of 101

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In regards to the timing of the onset of puberty, which of the following is more at risk for depressed mood, negative body image, eating disorders, substance use, delinquency, aggressive behavior, and school problems?

Select one of the following:

  • a boy who experiences late-onset puberty

  • a girl who experiences late-onset puberty

  • a boy who experiences early-onset puberty

  • a girl who experiences early-onset puberty

Question 76 of 101

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Which of the following best describes the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa?

Select one of the following:

  • inability to maintain body weights at least 85% normal for hight, fear of gaining weight, and distorted body image

  • episodes of binge eating, a sense of lack of control over eating during the episodes, and inappropriate compensatory behaviors in order to prevent weight loss.

  • depressed mood most of the day nearly every day, and feeling sad or empty

  • excessive worry and anxiety, significant difficulty controlling one’s worry, and the feeling of being wound up.

Question 77 of 101

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What Piagetian stage involves the development of hypothetical-deductive reasoning?

Select one of the following:

  • pre-operations

  • concrete operations

  • formal operations

  • advanced hypothesis testing

Question 78 of 101

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What Piagetian task was used to test whether a child had progressed from concrete to formal operations?

Select one of the following:

  • open-box problem

  • pendulum problem

  • three-mountain problem

  • blueprint problem

Question 79 of 101

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Which of the following best describes an imaginary audience?

Select one of the following:

  • difficulty distinguishing one’s thinking about one’s own thoughts from one’s thinking about the thoughts of others

  • an exaggerated image of highly attentive audience for the adolescent’s appearance and his or her behavior

  • holding the belief that one’s personal experiences and personal destiny are unique

  • organizing information into coherent patterns.

Question 80 of 101

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The ___ self is your self-conception, and _____ selves are the different people you could become in the future depending on your choices and experiences.

Select one of the following:

  • ideal;feared

  • feared;ideal

  • possible;ideal

  • actual;possible

Question 81 of 101

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_____ is the proposal that psychological and behavioral differences between males and females become more pronounced in the transition from childhood to adolescence because of social pressure to conform culturally prescribed gender roles.

Select one of the following:

  • sexual labeling theory

  • gender-based speculation hypothesis

  • sexual identification theory

  • gender-intensification hypothesis

Question 82 of 101

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To Kohlberg, whether the participants concluded that the actions of the persons in the dilemma ___ was crucial for understanding the level of people’s moral development?

Select one of the following:

  • were “right” or “wrong”

  • made the correct choice

  • should have been punished

  • were not just “right” and “wrong”, but how they explained their answers

Question 83 of 101

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Which of the following best describes Kohlberg’s post conventional level of moral reasoning?

Select one of the following:

  • moral reasoning is based on the individual’s own independent judgments rather than on what others view as wrong and right

  • what is right is whatever agrees with the rules established by tradition and by authorities

  • rules should be obeyed to avoid punishment from those in authority

  • moral reasoning is based on perception of the likelihood of external rewards and punishments

Question 84 of 101

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Alfredo is a high school student whose circle of friends includes six other people. They all know each other well and spend most of their time together, from sharing lunch in the cafeteria every day to hanging out on the basketball courts after school and on weekends. What type of group is this?

Select one of the following:

  • clique

  • crowd

  • friends

  • family

Question 85 of 101

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According to Susman et al. (2007) what type of group includes students who do not stand out in any particular way, neither positively or negatively, and are mostly ignored by other students?

Select one of the following:

  • elite

  • academics

  • deviants

  • others

Question 86 of 101

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Two types of countries have low rates of teenage pregnancy: those that are very restrictive in sexual behavior and those that are____.

Select one of the following:

  • ultra restrictive

  • punitive

  • permissived

  • moderately restrictive

Question 87 of 101

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What are the typical ages for emerging adulthood?

Select one of the following:

  • 12 to 17 years

  • 18 to 25 years

  • 26 to 30 years

  • 31 to 35 years

Question 88 of 101

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In the United States, which of the following is the most cited criterion as a marker of adulthood?

Select one of the following:

  • financial independence

  • the capacity to support one’s parents financially

  • emotional and cognitive maturity

  • behavioral and spiritual maturity

Question 89 of 101

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In the United States, which of the following is the most cited criterion as a marker of adulthood?

Select one of the following:

  • financial independence

  • the capacity to support one’s parents financially

  • emotional and cognitive maturity

  • behavioral and spiritual maturity

Question 90 of 101

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What term does Osgood use to describe behavior including riding around in cars for fun, going to parties, visiting friends informally, and going out with friends?

Select one of the following:

  • structured socialization

  • friendliness

  • social investment

  • unstructured socialization

Question 91 of 101

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Jean Piaget proposed that cognitive development reaches full maturity at formal operations; however, contemporary researchers propose that this is not the case, but rather that cognitive maturity extends into ____.

Select one of the following:

  • post formal thinking

  • pre formal thinking

  • metacognitive thinking

  • analytical thinking

Question 92 of 101

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You are talking to an exchange student about the different styles of education that occur in the United States and her country. She told you that grades matter very little and standards for performance are very relaxed. In fact, they have four years of university sanctioned leisure to think and explore. What country is she most likely from?

Select one of the following:

  • Great Britain

  • France

  • Japan

  • Canada

Question 93 of 101

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Jacob has been pressured by his father to take over the family farm. Reluctantly Jacob has agreed to this identity status because that is what is best for his parents. He has not explored his options but has passively accepted the identity his father imposed on him. From James Marcia’s model, which of the following identity statuses can Jacob’s be categorized as?

Select one of the following:

  • foreclosure

  • moratorium

  • achievement

  • diffusion

Question 94 of 101

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What do young Israelis view as the most important criterion that signals adulthood?

Select one of the following:

  • completing military service

  • supporting a spouse and child financially

  • being able to support their parents

  • emotional self-control

Question 95 of 101

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In Erik Erikson’s theory of the lifespan, what is the central emotional and psychosocial issue of young adulthood?

Select one of the following:

  • identity vs role confusion

  • intimacy vs isolation

  • generativity vs stagnation

  • ego-integrity vs dispair

Question 96 of 101

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Your grandparents have been married 50 years. They go everywhere together. You have caught them kissing when they thought they were alone and they hold hands quite a bit in public. They rarely make a move without asking the other his or her opinion. You hope to have that type of relationship some day. According to Sternburg, what type of love do you think they are experiencing?

Select one of the following:

  • romantic love

  • companionate love

  • fatuous love

  • consummate love

Question 97 of 101

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Which of the following is the correct sequencing of stages for Donald Super’s theory of occupational development?

Select one of the following:

  • specification, stabilization, crystallization, consolidation, and implementation

  • implementation, stabilization, consolidation, crystallization, and specification

  • crystallization, specification, implementation, stabilization, and consolidation

  • consolidation, stabilization, crystallization, implementation, and specification

Question 98 of 101

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What is the overall conclusion regarding a “universal” midlife crisis?

Select one of the following:

  • there really is no evidence for a universal mid-life crisis

  • only individuals older than 40, but younger than 45, are likely to have a midlife crisis

  • only individuals older than 45, but younger than 50, are likely to have a midlife crisis

  • only individuals older than 50 are likely to have a midlife crisis

Question 99 of 101

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You have noticed that your 41-year-old uncle has become very interested in helping his daughter’s Girl Scout troop and coaching his son’s soccer team. According to Erickson, what is your uncle displaying?

Select one of the following:

  • generativity

  • intimacy

  • integrity

  • altruism

Question 100 of 101

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According to Erickson, an individual who experiences ego integrity has:

Select one of the following:

  • reflected upon his or her life and had accepted its outcomes

  • reflected upon his or her life and is experiencing regret in bitterness

  • developed a sense of mistrust for individuals in their life

  • feels as if he or she is not a productive member of society

Question 101 of 101

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You have noticed that your 84-year-old great grandmother has a much smaller set of friends than she used to have. You know that the same individuals who she used to be friends with are still living in the same neighborhood. According to Cartensen, why is you grandmother not interacting with some of the people for whom she was a friend? Older adults tend to:

Select one of the following:

  • withdraw from friendships that are not rewarding

  • become more reclusive

  • not care about friend any longer

  • become increasingly nervous around other old people

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Psychology Final Exam

zacharynevue
Quiz by , created over 2 years ago

Quiz on Psychology Final Exam, created by zacharynevue on 06/05/2014.

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