During the oral psychosexual stage, if oral needs are not met appropriately, an individual may develop such habits as
extreme messiness and disorder
hostility toward the same-sex parent
fingernail biting and overeating
In Erickson's theory, the psychological conflict of basic trust versus mistrust is resolved on the positive side when
the balance of care is sympathetic and loving
toddlers are successfully toilet trained
hunger is consistently satisfied
the parents are perfectly in tune with their baby's needs
The United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand, and nearly all of the countries in Europe are examples of _______.
_____ cultures emphasize independance and self-expression, whereas _____ cultures emphasize obedience and group harmony
Children learning English and other Western languages fast-map which parts of speech earliest?
In a town in England, the wings of a local butterfly species had a black and white pattern. Over the years, as air pollution worsened in the town, a coat of black soot often covered everything. From an evolutionary perspective, which of the following is a logical sequencing.
Butterflies became blacker because the one with relatively more black on their wings were most likely to blend in with the sooty background
Butterflies became lighter because the only ones with relatively more white on their wings were least likely to blend in with the sooty background
Butterflies became more aggressive because their behaviors were altered by the toxins that were in the black soot
Butterflies morphed into moths because environmental conditions triggered an unfolding of a hidden gene
Sigmund Freud divided human development into ______ stages.
Which of the following comprise Freud's theory of personality
id, ego, superego
conscious, collective unconscious, subcortical unconscious
the self, the shadow, the anima
real self, fear self, future self
Stranger anxiety first appears at what age?
Which of the following statements is true about correlation coefficients?
the sign of the number refers to the strength of the relationship
a negative correlation coefficient means that the two variables are not related to each other
a positive correlation coefficient implies that as one variable increases, the other also increases.
the magnitude of the number shows the direction of the relationship
Twelve-year-old Ross lives in a country with very low governmental standards for public education. As a result, he is barely literate. The public policies that impact Ross's education are part of the
Which of the following research methods permits inferences about cause-and-effect relationships?
In the cross-sectional design
groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time.
participants are studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes are noted as they get older
participants are presented with a novel task, and researchers follow their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions
the investigator conducts several sequences and make cross-sectional comparisons
How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?
Fred was born into a family with high musical talent. Both his parents were professional musicians who encouraged and fostered his music development. Throughout childhood he practiced the guitar whenever he could and eventually became a professional musician himself. Which of the following best describes Fred's genotype?
Fred's musical genes
Fred's musical talent
Fred's nurturing parents
Fred's musical genes and talent
If the gene for curly hair is dominant and the gene for straight hair is recessive, from a dominant-recessive pairing, which of the following would be an individual's phenotype?
their complete genetic makeup
Single gene pairs play a crucial role in development. However, it is more common that developmental outcomes occur because of the interaction of multiple genes. This is known as ______.
Research on private speech suggests that young children
are more likely to talk to themselves when tasks are too hard
are more likely to talk to themselves when tasks are appropriately challenging
talk to themselves because they have difficulty taking perspective of others
with learning and behavior problems rarely use private speech
Fred and George are identical twins. Ashton and Michael are fraternal twins. Which of the following statements is true?
Ashton and Michael have the same genetic makeup
Fred and George have the same genetic makeup
Ashton and Michael are more genetically similar than Fred and George
Fred and George are genetically no more alike than ordinary siblings
The _________ is the longest prenatal period
period of the embryo
period of the zygote
period of the fetus
A teratogen is
any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period
a limited time span during which a part of the body is biologically prepared to develop rapidly
a neurological growth period for the fetus
a synthetic hormone used to prevent miscarriage
If baby Jaymie has a combined Apgar score of 7, doctors should
hand her to her parent, as she is in good physical condition
provide immediate emergency assistance
put her in an incubator
provide some assistance in establishing breathing
Tiffany is a small-for-date baby. This means she
was born several weeks or more before her due date
was born below her expected weight considering the length of the pregnancy
will probably have much less serious problems than a preterm infant
may have difficulties in infancy but will outgrow them by the preschool years
The function of the Babinski reflex is
to protect the infant from strong stimulations
linked to human evolutionary past, and may have helped an infant cling to the mother
to prepare an infant for voluntary reaching
Professor Glossner proposes that the heritability of temperament is .80. Which of the following statements does Professor Glossner propose?
a large portion of temperament is determined by genetics
a large portion of temperament is determined by environment
80% of temperament is determined by the X chromosome
20% of temperament is determined by the X chromosome
When concordance rates are higher amun monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins, this indicates which of the following?
there is partially a genetic basis
there is partially an environmental basis
there is a 100% evironmental cause
there is a 100% genetic cause
What needs to dilate 10 centimeters (4.5 inches) during the process of labor?
the fallopian tubes
The second stage of the birthing process is called
Which of the following best describes a cesarean delivery?
a delivery process that take longer than normal
when the cervix is dilated to 10 cm wide
surgically opening the mother's abdomen and retrieving the baby directly from the uterus
when the fetus is turned around so that the feel or buttocks is presented in the birth canal first
What makes delivery much more difficult for the women?
lying flat on her back
leaning back on a hammock
Accordingly to Jean Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory, children
actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world
acquire new social values as sexual instincts die down
gradually become more selective in what they imitate
develop within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment
According to Piaget's theory, cognitive development begins in the ______ stage.
Dr. Winsock often designs flowcharts to map the precise steps that her research participants use to solve problems and complete tasks, much like the plans devised by programmers to get computers to perform a series of "mental operations." Dr. Winsock probably subscribes to which of the following theories of development?
ecological systems theory
According to Vygotsky, _______ is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture.
Lorenzo first develops the ability to control his chest, then his arm, then his hand, and finally his fingers. This progression of motor development is called the ______.
When neuronal connections that are used become stronger and faster and the neuronal connection that are not used wither away, what is happening?
The text describes orphanages in Romania in which all of the infants had been seriously deprived. The children were later adopted and recovered dramatically in physical development. It was found that the recovery in cognitive development
recovered rapidly for all children
was dependent on the age in which the children were adopted
did not occur for any of the children
not only recovered quickly, but the children outperformed other children very rapidly
When you are visiting friends who just had a newborn, you notice that the baby is lying face-down in her crib. What do you tell your friends?
that their daughter looks peacefully asleep
that is the best position for an infant to be in
that they need to have her on her back because lying face-down puts her at risk for SIDS
their daughter might grow up with a flat nose from being laid on her stomach
________ in infants was first demostrated in a classic experiment by Eleanor Gibson and James Walk (1960) with their use of a table called the "visual cliff"
fine motor skills
Which of the following describes the normal sequencing of language development?
words, cooing, babbling
words, babbling, cooing
babbling, cooing, words
cooing, babbling, words
In what type of speech do adults talk to infant by raising the pitch of their voices, exaggerating their intonation, and repeating words?
Your friends have just had a baby, it is now two weeks old and you notice that its moods are generally positive, it adapts well to new situations, and does not have extreme emotional reactions. What do you know about her personality? She is probably ______.
an easy baby
a difficult baby
a slow-to-warm up baby
an undifferentiated baby
Which of the following are the five primary emotions?
jealousy, joy, shame, lust, and surprise
guilt, joy, envy, embarrassment, and happiness
embarrassment, surprise, jealousy, joy, and hurt
anger, fear, disgust, surprise, and happiness
You have been a life-long smoker, but you quit at the end of last week because you know how damaging it is to your health and you do not want to be a bad influence on your son, who is a toddler. You walk into your son's room and you find him acting like he is smoking with a crayon. According to Piaget, what is you son doing?
secondary circular reactions
Your nephew loves cats. You have a large black cat that you named "Midnight." Your nephew readily learned your cat's name, but now calls all cats "Midnight." Surely your nephew does not think that every cat's name is "Midnight." Why is this happening? Your nephews behavior is an example of ________.
_____ is the difference between skills or tasks that children can accomplish alone and those they are capable of performing if guided by an adult or a more competent peer.
zone of proximal development
Under normal conditions conditions young children use their primary attachment figure as a _______.
source of nutrition
source of entertainment
source of education
In this type of attachment, these these toddlers are less likely to explore any toys when the mother is present and they show greater distress when she leaves the room. When she returns they run to greet her, but then push away when she attempts to comfort or pick them up.
Pneumonia, malaria, and measles are common causes of death for children in ______.
Identical twins have a _________ genetic similarity and are more likely than ordinary siblings to _____
50%; differ in handedness
100%; differ in handedness
50%; be similar in handedness
100%; be similar in handedness
What stage emphasizes that children were unable yet to perform mental operations?
You are visiting your sister who has 4-year-old twins. They ask if they can have some milk and you are pouring it for them. One glass that you chose was tall and thin and the other was short and wide. After you poured the milk your niece is very unhappy because you gave “more” milk to your nephew. You actually gave each of them the same amount, but your niece and nephew lack the mental ability to ____.
Which of the following statements best captures why a child may fail the conservation task?
“They can reverse the action mentally and can see that the amount of water is the same.”
“They fail to understand that the amount of water remains the same even though the appearance of the water changes”
“They tend to pick the photo that matches their own perspective, not the dolls.”
“They frequently attribute human thoughts and feelings to stuffed animals and dolls, often thoughts and feelings they have themselves.”
You just came back from class in which the topic was egocentrism in the proportional stage. You have a 4-year-old and thought you would see if what you learned was accurate. You are sitting directly across from her and ask her to look at the front and back cover of her favorite book. After she did this you asked her to describe “the part of the book that I am looking at” What does she say?
how many pages there are in the book
what you see
what she sees
what the story is about
What happens to the IQ gains that occur as a function of low-income children participating in the Project Head Start program?
the gain are maintained throughout life.
the gains result in even greater gains throughout life
the gains fade within two or three years
there were actually no real IQ gains
Phrases like “please,” “thank you,” and “bye-bye” are examples of ____.
the pragmatic quality of language
the morphemic quality of language
the grammatical quality of language
how prosody varies within language
What term describes the understanding that maleness and femaleness are biological and connot change?
What is a distinctive feature of authoritative parents?
they are quite passive in their responding
they do not care whatsoever what their children do
they respond with anger to questions from their children
they explain the reasons for their rules and expectations to their children
If you were an authoritative parent, how would you handle a child who only wanted to eat a banana split for dinner? You would say, ____
“It would be much better to eat a healthy dinner first and have a banana split for dessert if you are not full”
“Great, let’s go for it!”
“Absolutely not, under no circumstance will I allow that!”
“Whatever, I don’t care.”
During middle childhood, children become ____ susceptible to disease, ___ vulnerable to the effects of malnutrition, and ______ likely to have accidents that result in injury or death.
Your roommate and you are having a discussion of the “Westernization” of many developing countries. You are concerned about the ill effects of some of the Western culture. In terms of healthy weight of children in developing countries, why would you be concerned about the potential changes in their diets that can come with Westernization? Children in developing countries ____.
can now get pre-packaged Western foods that contain precisely the nutrients that they require
require that their diets contain flouride because of the great risk of tooth decay
need extra calories to be healthy and Western diets are not sufficient
are eating more unhealthy foods as a result of Western diets
Ashton is shown two round balls of clay equal in size. He watches as the experimenter rolls one ball into a long sausage shape and ask which of the shapes has more clay. If Ashton is in Piaget’s preoperational stage he will reply, _____.
“the long on”
“they are both the same”
“I can’t tell”
If Julia is taller than Anna and Anna is taller than Lynn, Julia must be taller than Lynn. According to Piaget, what concepts does this question illustrate?
Your sister-in-law is amazed at her 9-year-old son. She can remember when her son was not able to sit and listen to a story for very long and now he is able to listen intently and remember the story in very good detail. What two advances occur during middle childhood in information processing abilities that assist with his newly developed abilities?
visual scanning and search routines
attention and memory
motivation and diligence
decentering and critical processing
What is the disorder referred to when difficulties in maintaining attention?
attention persistence disorder
attention deficit disorder
attention control disorder
____ is a person’s capacity for acquiring knowledge, reasoning, and solving problems.
Every child has a genetically based ___ for intelligence, meaning a range of possible developmental paths.
variance from the mean
Great inventors such as Leonardo da Vinci, Benjamin Franklin, and Alexander Graham Bell all possess which of Sternburg’s triarchic theory of intelligence?
Ms. Silman proposes that children learn how to read best when they are taught to examine the overall meaning of words, rather than breaking down each word into its smallest component. She encourages her students to guess at the meaning of words they do not know, based on the context of the word within the poem or story. Which of the following does Ms. Silman practice in her classroom?
a while-language approach to reading
sight word-based reading
Assume that you have a friend who is bilingual and is contemplating whether or not to teach her child both English and Spanish. Based on the research, which of the following should be your response?
“It is generally not recommended to teach bilingualism as it is too much for the child to handle. Their brains are just not ready for it.”
“If you want your son to be bilingual it is recommended that you wait until he is at least 14 to teach the second language. The brain is further developed at a later age.”
“Most of the research for bilingualism is positive. Sometimes children have difficulty with syntax; however, it is better to learn a second language sooner than later.”
“If you teach your child both English and Spanish his teacher will become frustrated and take it out on his grades. It is generally not recommended.”
In middle childhood, children become more capable of going about their daily activities without constant monitoring and control by others. They are better at functioning independently, with a little guidance from others, also called _____.
Researchers have described four categories of social status. Which children were the ones who most often were rated as “liked” and rarely rated as “disliked”?
Pubertal changes begin when a threshold of ____.
body fat is reached
a specific age is reached
specific hight is reached
after the rites of passage has occurred
Your little sister, who is 13, has a bust that is visibly increasing. What type of sex characteristic describes this change?
primary sex characteristics
secondary sex characteristics
tertiary sex characteristics
quaternary sex characteristics
In regards to the timing of the onset of puberty, which of the following is more at risk for depressed mood, negative body image, eating disorders, substance use, delinquency, aggressive behavior, and school problems?
a boy who experiences late-onset puberty
a girl who experiences late-onset puberty
a boy who experiences early-onset puberty
a girl who experiences early-onset puberty
Which of the following best describes the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa?
inability to maintain body weights at least 85% normal for hight, fear of gaining weight, and distorted body image
episodes of binge eating, a sense of lack of control over eating during the episodes, and inappropriate compensatory behaviors in order to prevent weight loss.
depressed mood most of the day nearly every day, and feeling sad or empty
excessive worry and anxiety, significant difficulty controlling one’s worry, and the feeling of being wound up.
What Piagetian stage involves the development of hypothetical-deductive reasoning?
advanced hypothesis testing
What Piagetian task was used to test whether a child had progressed from concrete to formal operations?
Which of the following best describes an imaginary audience?
difficulty distinguishing one’s thinking about one’s own thoughts from one’s thinking about the thoughts of others
an exaggerated image of highly attentive audience for the adolescent’s appearance and his or her behavior
holding the belief that one’s personal experiences and personal destiny are unique
organizing information into coherent patterns.
The ___ self is your self-conception, and _____ selves are the different people you could become in the future depending on your choices and experiences.
_____ is the proposal that psychological and behavioral differences between males and females become more pronounced in the transition from childhood to adolescence because of social pressure to conform culturally prescribed gender roles.
sexual labeling theory
gender-based speculation hypothesis
sexual identification theory
To Kohlberg, whether the participants concluded that the actions of the persons in the dilemma ___ was crucial for understanding the level of people’s moral development?
were “right” or “wrong”
made the correct choice
should have been punished
were not just “right” and “wrong”, but how they explained their answers
Which of the following best describes Kohlberg’s post conventional level of moral reasoning?
moral reasoning is based on the individual’s own independent judgments rather than on what others view as wrong and right
what is right is whatever agrees with the rules established by tradition and by authorities
rules should be obeyed to avoid punishment from those in authority
moral reasoning is based on perception of the likelihood of external rewards and punishments
Alfredo is a high school student whose circle of friends includes six other people. They all know each other well and spend most of their time together, from sharing lunch in the cafeteria every day to hanging out on the basketball courts after school and on weekends. What type of group is this?
According to Susman et al. (2007) what type of group includes students who do not stand out in any particular way, neither positively or negatively, and are mostly ignored by other students?
Two types of countries have low rates of teenage pregnancy: those that are very restrictive in sexual behavior and those that are____.
What are the typical ages for emerging adulthood?
12 to 17 years
18 to 25 years
26 to 30 years
31 to 35 years
In the United States, which of the following is the most cited criterion as a marker of adulthood?
the capacity to support one’s parents financially
emotional and cognitive maturity
behavioral and spiritual maturity
What term does Osgood use to describe behavior including riding around in cars for fun, going to parties, visiting friends informally, and going out with friends?
Jean Piaget proposed that cognitive development reaches full maturity at formal operations; however, contemporary researchers propose that this is not the case, but rather that cognitive maturity extends into ____.
post formal thinking
pre formal thinking
You are talking to an exchange student about the different styles of education that occur in the United States and her country. She told you that grades matter very little and standards for performance are very relaxed. In fact, they have four years of university sanctioned leisure to think and explore. What country is she most likely from?
Jacob has been pressured by his father to take over the family farm. Reluctantly Jacob has agreed to this identity status because that is what is best for his parents. He has not explored his options but has passively accepted the identity his father imposed on him. From James Marcia’s model, which of the following identity statuses can Jacob’s be categorized as?
What do young Israelis view as the most important criterion that signals adulthood?
completing military service
supporting a spouse and child financially
being able to support their parents
In Erik Erikson’s theory of the lifespan, what is the central emotional and psychosocial issue of young adulthood?
identity vs role confusion
intimacy vs isolation
generativity vs stagnation
ego-integrity vs dispair
Your grandparents have been married 50 years. They go everywhere together. You have caught them kissing when they thought they were alone and they hold hands quite a bit in public. They rarely make a move without asking the other his or her opinion. You hope to have that type of relationship some day. According to Sternburg, what type of love do you think they are experiencing?
Which of the following is the correct sequencing of stages for Donald Super’s theory of occupational development?
specification, stabilization, crystallization, consolidation, and implementation
implementation, stabilization, consolidation, crystallization, and specification
crystallization, specification, implementation, stabilization, and consolidation
consolidation, stabilization, crystallization, implementation, and specification
What is the overall conclusion regarding a “universal” midlife crisis?
there really is no evidence for a universal mid-life crisis
only individuals older than 40, but younger than 45, are likely to have a midlife crisis
only individuals older than 45, but younger than 50, are likely to have a midlife crisis
only individuals older than 50 are likely to have a midlife crisis
You have noticed that your 41-year-old uncle has become very interested in helping his daughter’s Girl Scout troop and coaching his son’s soccer team. According to Erickson, what is your uncle displaying?
According to Erickson, an individual who experiences ego integrity has:
reflected upon his or her life and had accepted its outcomes
reflected upon his or her life and is experiencing regret in bitterness
developed a sense of mistrust for individuals in their life
feels as if he or she is not a productive member of society
You have noticed that your 84-year-old great grandmother has a much smaller set of friends than she used to have. You know that the same individuals who she used to be friends with are still living in the same neighborhood. According to Cartensen, why is you grandmother not interacting with some of the people for whom she was a friend? Older adults tend to:
withdraw from friendships that are not rewarding
become more reclusive
not care about friend any longer
become increasingly nervous around other old people