Earth Science- Chapter 8 Earthquakes and Earth Part 1

Question 1 of 48

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The elastic rebound theory for the origin of earthquakes was first proposed by ________ following the ________ earthquake.

Select one of the following:

  • Reid; 1906, San Francisco

  • Giuseppe; 1925, Pizza Lake

  • Richter; 1989, Loma Prieta

  • Mohorovicic; 1964, Anchorage

Question 2 of 48

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When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source. The source is also referred to as the ________.

Select one of the following:

  • inertial point

  • epicenter

  • focus

  • seismic zone

Question 3 of 48

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Which one of the following statements is correct?

Select one of the following:

  • P waves travel through solids; S waves do not.

  • P and S waves travel through liquids, but P waves do not travel through solids.

  • S waves travel through solids and P waves travel through liquids.

  • P and S waves travel through liquids, but S waves do not travel through solids.

Question 4 of 48

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________ have the highest velocities

Select one of the following:

  • Primary waves

  • Secondary waves

  • Surface waves

  • Refracted S waves

Question 5 of 48

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Which one of the following is true regarding tsunamis?

Select one of the following:

  • They travel as deep-water waves at speeds greater than surface seismic waves but slower than S waves

  • Their wave heights decrease and wavelengths increase as they move into shallower water

  • They are started by fault-induced, horizontal shifts in the seafloor that suddenly propel great masses of water in opposite directions.

  • They occur in the open ocean, wavelengths are many miles or kilometers and wave heights are only a few feet.

Question 6 of 48

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The amount of destruction caused by earthquake vibrations is affected by ________.

Select one of the following:

  • design of structures

  • intensity and duration of the vibrations

  • nature of the surface material

  • all of these

Question 7 of 48

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On a typical seismogram, ________ will show the highest amplitudes.

Select one of the following:

  • P waves

  • S waves

  • surface waves

  • body waves

Question 8 of 48

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Major earthquakes are often followed by somewhat smaller events known as ________.

Select one of the following:

  • aftershocks

  • foreshocks

  • tremors

  • hyposhocks

Question 9 of 48

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The ________ magnitude scale is a measure of the energy released. It does not directly measure the extent of building damage.

Select one of the following:

  • Gutenberg

  • Reid

  • Mercalli

  • Richter

Question 10 of 48

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The instrument that records earthquake events is termed a ________.

Select one of the following:

  • polygraph

  • thermograph

  • seismograph

  • barograph

Question 11 of 48

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________ is the maximum possible damage designation on the Mercalli scale.

Select one of the following:

  • XII

  • 12

  • X

  • 10

Question 12 of 48

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The position on Earth's surface directly above the earthquake source is called the ________.

Select one of the following:

  • epicenter

  • inertial point

  • focus

  • seismic zone

Question 13 of 48

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The mechanism by which rocks store and eventually release energy in the form of an earthquake is termed ________.

Select one of the following:

  • elastic rebound

  • seismic rebound

  • fault displacement

  • stress fracture

Question 14 of 48

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Overall, this type of seismic wave is the most destructive.

Select one of the following:

  • P wave

  • S wave

  • surface wave

  • tsunami

Question 15 of 48

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Approximately how much more energy is released in a 6.5 Richter magnitude earthquake than in one with magnitude 5.5?

Select one of the following:

  • 3000 times

  • 3 times

  • 300 times

  • 30 times

Question 16 of 48

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P waves ________.

Select one of the following:

  • propagate only in solids

  • are faster than S waves and surface waves

  • have higher amplitudes than do S waves

  • produce the strongest ground shaking

Question 17 of 48

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The Mercalli Scale is a scale from ________.

Select one of the following:

  • 1 to 12 that rates the energy required for faulting to occur

  • 1 to 10 that rates the energy released by an earthquake

  • I to XII that rates the structural damage due to an earthquake

  • I to X that rates the total energy released during the main quake and all aftershocks

Question 18 of 48

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The distance between a seismological recording station and the earthquake source is determined from the ________.

Select one of the following:

  • earthquake magnitude

  • intensity of the earthquake

  • length of the seismic record

  • arrival times of P and S waves

Question 19 of 48

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The Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the ________.

Select one of the following:

  • duration of the earthquake

  • intensity of the earthquake

  • arrival time of P and S waves

  • amplitude of the surface waves

Question 20 of 48

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Which one of the following best characterizes tsunamis?

Select one of the following:

  • They cause the land to ripple and oscillate.

  • They are faster than seismic surface waves.

  • They have relatively small amplitudes compared to their very long wavelengths.

  • They are easily seen at sea but are lost in the swell and breaking waves along a coast.

Question 21 of 48

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The ________ earthquake was accompanied by extensive fire damage.

Select one of the following:

  • Anchorage, 1964

  • San Francisco, 1906

  • Mexico City, 1985

  • Yerevan, Armenia, 1988

Question 22 of 48

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________ refers to the tendency for a foundation material to lose its internal cohesion and fail mechanically during earthquake shaking.

Select one of the following:

  • Slurrying

  • Liquefaction

  • Motion slip

  • Seismoflowage

Question 23 of 48

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The record of an earthquake obtained from a seismic instrument is a(n) ________.

Select one of the following:

  • seismograph

  • seismogram

  • time-travel graph

  • epigraph

Question 24 of 48

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Most of our knowledge about Earth's interior comes from ________.

Select one of the following:

  • drill holes

  • volcanic eruptions

  • seismic waves

  • examination of deep mine shafts

Question 25 of 48

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Which one of the following statements about the crust is NOT true?

Select one of the following:

  • It is the thinnest of the major subdivisions

  • It is thickest where prominent mountains exist.

  • Oceanic crust is enriched in potassium, sodium, and silicon

  • Continental rocks are compositionally different than oceanic rocks

Question 26 of 48

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The dense core of Earth is thought to consist predominantly of ________.

Select one of the following:

  • nickel

  • lead

  • iron

  • copper

Question 27 of 48

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The lithosphere is defined as ________.

Select one of the following:

  • a rocky layer having a relatively uniform chemical composition

  • a rigid layer of crustal and mantle material

  • a rocky layer composed mainly of crustal rocks

  • a plastic layer composed mainly of mantle material

Question 28 of 48

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The average composition of the oceanic crust is thought to approximate that of ________.

Select one of the following:

  • granite

  • basalt

  • peridotite

  • iron

Question 29 of 48

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The average composition of the continental crust most closely approximates that of ________.

Select one of the following:

  • granite

  • basalt

  • peridotite

  • iron

Question 30 of 48

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The Earth's magnetic field originates by ________.

Select one of the following:

  • weak electrical currents associated with hot, rising, mantle plumes

  • magnetic mineral grains in the inner core

  • weak electrical currents associated with fluid motions in the outer core

  • magnetization of oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the atmospheric ozone layer by solar radiation

Question 31 of 48

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The asthenosphere is located ________.

Select one of the following:

  • within the crust

  • in the upper mantle

  • between the mantle and outer core

  • within the outer core

Question 32 of 48

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Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

Select one or more of the following:

  • P wave

  • S wave

  • surface wave

  • body wave

Question 33 of 48

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Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

Select one or more of the following:

  • focus

  • seismograph

  • epicenter

  • fault

Question 34 of 48

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Choose the option which does not fit the pattern

Select one or more of the following:

  • tsunami

  • fire

  • liquefaction

  • seiches

Question 35 of 48

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Choose the option which does not fit the pattern

Select one or more of the following:

  • Modified Mercalli

  • energy

  • Richter

  • amplitude

Question 36 of 48

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Choose the option which does not fit the pattern

Select one or more of the following:

  • crust

  • lithosphere

  • core

  • mantle

Question 37 of 48

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Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

Select one or more of the following:

  • core

  • asthenosphere

  • mesosphere

  • lithosphere

Question 38 of 48

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S waves can travel through solid and liquid media.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 39 of 48

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The time between the first P-wave and S-wave arrivals is a measure of the distance from a receiving station to the epicenter of the earthquake.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 40 of 48

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Earthquakes result from the sudden release of elastic strain energy previously stored in rocks surrounding a zone of fault movement.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 41 of 48

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Tsunamis are caused by sudden displacement of large volumes of seawater.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 42 of 48

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The Richter earthquake magnitude scale is based on the total amount of energy released by the earthquake.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 43 of 48

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The epicenter of an earthquake is on the surface of the Earth directly above the focus.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 44 of 48

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Unconsolidated, water-saturated soils or sediments provide good foundation materials for buildings and other structures.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 45 of 48

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Oceanic crust is mainly basaltic in composition; the mantle is more like the igneous rock peridotite in chemical composition.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 46 of 48

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Continental crust is generally thicker than oceanic crust.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 47 of 48

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The crust and mantle are solids; the inner core is thought to be solid.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 48 of 48

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The mantle is composed mainly of metallic iron with small amounts of magnesium silicate minerals.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False
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Earth Science- Chapter 8 Earthquakes and Earth Part 1

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Quiz by , created over 2 years ago

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