The Wilson Cycle
is the process of creating, moving, and destroying tectonic plates.
is the process of water shifting from oceans to the land.
is the process of cooling liquid rock into solid rock.
is the process of mitigating damages from natural hazards.
Which of the following locations are not at risk for hurricanes?
All of the above
The Hawaiian Islands are an example of:
Transform Fault Boundary
Two Continental plates converging
Two Ocean plates converging
Which of the following is not one of the Geological Cycles?
The Biogeochemical Cycle
The Rock Cycle
The Hydrologic Cycle
The Tectonic Cycle
Which earthquake scale would be most appropriate to describe historic earthquakes where seismography records are not available?
The Richter Scale
The Warren Intensity Scale
The Fujita Scale
The Moment Magnitude Scale
The Modified Mercalli Scale
Beofre a Tsunami arrives, the sea level often drops exposing the seafloor.
Which of the following best describes a fault?
A place on the Earth where there is a giant chasm usually filled with magma.
A place on Earth where the continent meets the ocean.
A place on the Earth where there are caves or large holes hidden under the ground.
A place on Earth where there are giant gaps or canyons.
A place on the Earth where there is a break and both pieces are sliding against each other.
Which of the following constitutes a prediction rather than a forecast for a natural event?
Landslides are expected in the Tacoma, WA area throughout the weekend.
Tremors from an earthquake may cause damage to poorly built structures.
An 4.5 magnitude earthquake will occur in Tacoma, WA on August 15, 2006 at 2pm.
Four to five inches of rain may fall with the category 2 storm off the coast of Alabama.
There is a 50% chance of thunderstorms in the Seattle region on Saturday.
Which of the following hazards are not related to tsunamis?
The Indonesian Tsunami caused a catastrophe around the Indian Ocean because
Buildings were not built to withstand a tsunami
Tsunamis had never been recorded in that area.
The earthquake that produced it was very big.
There was no warning system to alert people to evacuate.
The earthquake that produced it was associated with a Subduction Zone.
Which of the following areas of the United States are not at risk for any natural disaster?
New York, NY
San Francisco, CA
All areas of the United States are at risk for some kind of natural disaster
Malthus predicted a crisis point in societies when population outgrew what?
How many earthquakes are there every year?
Which of the following would not be part of the Tectonic Cycle?
The Himalayas are associated with which of the following plate boundaries?
in which of the following faults does the hanging wall move down relative to the footwall?
Strike Slip Fault
Earthquakes of magnitude 8 or higher are extremely rare events.
The Demographic Transition Model (presented in the discussion group) argues that countries advance when what changes?
Food sources become safe
Women become educated
Society begins living longer
Children become expensive
Which of the following regions has the least risk from Tsunamis?
Atlantic Coast of United States
Pacific Northwest Coast of United States
Northeast Coast of the Indian Ocean
Why don't boats in the open ocean notice a Tsunami approaching?
Tsunami waves don't break and therefore won't be noticed by boats.
Boats will usually mistake the large waves for tidal waves and not recognize them as Tsunami.
The statement isn't true. Tsunami waves are always noticed by boats in the open ocean.
Tsunamis are too small in amplitude in the open ocean and the distance between crests is too large for boats to notice its passing.
Because Tsunamis are produced by earthquakes, the boats are probably still recovering from the initial tremors to notice a change in the waves.
Malthusian Geographers accurately predicted the collapse of primitive societies.
Which of the following is the correct order of the layers of the Earth from inside to outside?
inner core, outer core, crust, mantle
inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
inner core, mantle, outer core, crust
crust, inner core, outer core, mantel
mantle, inner core, crust, outer core
Earthquakes around the world are extremely rare events.
What would be the correct relationship between the crust and the lithosphere?
The lithosphere is liquid, whereas the crust is solid.
The lithosphere sits on top of the crust.
The lithosphere contains both the oceans on the continents, the crust only includes continents.
The crust sits on top of the lithosphere.
The lithosphere and the crust are the same thing.
The location of the actual break in the rocks that cause an earthquake is called the
Which of the following is not an effect of Earthquakes?
Which of the following statements is false about the magnitude of earthquakes?
An earthquake of magnitude 3 on the scale is only slightly bigger than a 2.
Magnitudes of earthquakes are based on powers of ten.
The Richter Scale and Moment Magnitude scales are used to describe the magnitude of an earthquake.
Great earthquakes can have a magnitude of 8 or higher.
Over a million earthquakes of magnitude 2-2.9 is felt per year.
The idea that Earth processes operated the same in the past as they do today is called what?
The Principle of Nature
The Scientific Model
Which of the following is used to calculate risk?
Probability of event
Amount of damage to roads and bridges
Amount of property damage expected
Number of deaths possible
All of the above ore used to calculate risk
The crust of Earth is considered the thinnest layer of Earth.
Natural hazards are predictable to some degree.
What is the difference between the inner and outer core of the Earth?
The inner core is made from magma and the outer core is metal
The inner core is liquid and the outer core is solid
The inner core is cool and the outer core is hot.
The inner core is solid and the outer core is liquid.
The inner core is hot and the outer core is cool.
What causes earthquakes in San Francisco?
Dip-slip faults from Subduction
These are intraplate earthquakes
Dip-slip faults from convergent plate boundaries
Dip-slip faults from from divergent plate boundaries.
Some kind of natural disaster is possible for almost every region of the United States.
All earthquakes can cause Tsunami to form in the ocean.
Catastrophe and Disasters differ in the magnitude of the effect of the Hazard.
Why don't earthquakes on Transform Faults trigger tsunamis?
The earthquakes don't move fast enough
The earthquakes aren't strong enough
The earthquakes don't horizontally displace the water in the ocean
The earthquakes don't vertically displace the water in the ocean
The earthquakes aren't in the ocean
Which of the following is false about the shaking from earthquakes?
Places closer to the epicenter experience greater ground shaking
Seismographs very far from the epicenter can detect shaking
The type of soil can affect the amount of shaking that is felt during an earthquake
The direction to the epicenter can affect the amount of shaking
Deeper earthquakes cause greater ground shaking
During subduction, one plate sinks under another tectonic plate.
S-waves cannot move through liquids or gasses.
Which of the following cannot produce Tsunamis?
Subduction Zone Earthquakes
Transform Fault Earthquakes
The asthenosphere layer of the Earth is liquid.
What is the importance of the notion that "hazards are repetitive"?
Hazards keep happening constantly in an area, so people already know how to react to them.
We need to look to the past events to understand what is probable for the future.
If something has already happened, like a volcanic eruption, then we won't need to worry about it.
New events will probably happen exactly like old ones, so we need to be prepared.
Does human activity affect the magnitude of tsunamis?
No. Human activity does not increase or decrease the wave amplitude.
Yes. Human structures on the shoreline increase the wave amplitude.
Yes. Global warming is causing an increase in frequency and magnitude of tsunamis.
Yes. Human use of the water decreases the wave amplitude.
Yes. Human use of the water increases the wave amplitude.
How quickly do faults slip?
Millimeters per year.
Millimeters per minute.
Millimeters per second.
Millimeters per day.
Faults don't ever slip.
Which of the following places in the United States do not see earthquake hazards?
Las Vegas, NV
Los Angeles, CA
St. Louis, MO
The amount of shaking that is felt from an earthquake depends on what?
Depth of focus.
Direction of the epicenter.
Location with respect to the epicenter.
Earth materials through which the waves move.
All of the above.
Natural Hazards differ from Disasters in that
natural hazards have the potential to impact human life.
naturals disasters refer to the effects of a hazard on a particular area at a particular time.
disasters mostly refer to hazards created by people.
natural hazards only refer to earthquakes and volcanoes.
The inside of the Earth is composed of layers that have different properties.
Why do many demographers argue that an increased human population will help with natural hazards?
A higher population decreases the density of people living in hazardous environments.
A higher population increases the amount of money spent researching the problems.
A higher population decrease the probability of being hit by a natural disaster.
A higher population increase the number of people working to solve the problems.
If you live on the 100 year floodplan, it means that you will only have a flood once every 100 years.
Where is Krakatoa?
What is the term for the location in which a river ends?
Which of the following volcano types are found in the United States?
All of the above are found in the United States
Which is not a location where volcanoes are found?
Pacific Northwest United States
Yellowstone National Park
Central United States
On which of the following plate boundaries are volcanoes not typically found?
Volcanoes are found on all plate boundaries
What is the difference between magma and lava?
Magma is found below the surface, Lava is found on the surface.
Magma is found on the ocean floor, lava is found on land surface.
There is no difference between magma and lava.
Magma is molten rock, Lava is hot rock and water.
Magma is black, Lava is red.
Which river would have the highest gradient?
Rivers near their floodplains.
Rivers moving down mountains.
Rivers in gentle valleys.
Rivers flowing into dams.
Rivers near the ocean.
Caves form in places where giant bubbles were present in the lava that formed the earth's crust.
A Karst environment is typically classified by which type of bedrock?
Which US economy has the largest economy and, thus, the greatest ability to recover from a disaster?
Which of the following loads would make a river appear murky or dirty?
Which of the following statements about sinkholes is not true?
Sinkholes are common in Florida.
Sinkholes are usually found in remote and swampy areas.
Sinkholes are a widespread and costly hazard in the US.
Sinkholes can cause damage to roads and bridges.
Sinkholes can reveal themselves during times of drought.
If you see a steep cliff with piles of rocks at the bottom, what kind of mass wasting do you think has occured?
What is mass wasting?
Loss of mass during chemical weathering.
Recycling of materials to make slopes
Movement of sediment downshore due to currents
Land lost to volcanic eruptions
Downslope movement of rock
Would adding mass to the top of a slope in the form of houses or buildings make the mass or less likely to slide?
It would make it less likely to slide because the houses make the slope less steep.
It would make it more likely to slide because the houses add weight to the slope making it more unstable.
It would not make a difference either way.
it would make it less likely to slide because the houses would add pressure on the slope keeping it stable.
It would make it more likely to slide because the houses would make the slope more steep.
Which of the following locations are not at risk from floods?
All of the U.S. have some risk of floods.
All slopes have potential for mass wasting of some type.
Which of the following was not a hazard associated with the explosion of Mt. St. Helens?
All of the above were associated with Mt. St. Helens.
Rivers make excellent borders because they provide stability.
Slumps tend to slide along clay-rich layers.
Living near a dam is very safe because you will never have to worry about flooding.
Which of the following loads are most likely to consist of heavy rocks and boulders?
Shield volcanoes are most dangerous volcanoes because they are so big.
What is the best description of the "10-year flood"?
a flood that has a 10% chance of occurring each year.
a flood that can occur only once every 10 years.
a flood that lasts for approximately 10 years.
a flood that occurred within the last 10 years.
Which of the following is the most rapid form of mass wasting?
What type of river channel is characterized by multiple channels and gravel bars?
What is Karst Topography?
A type of landscape that is mostly frozen and snow covered.
A type of landscape characterized by glacial deposits.
A flat surface used mostly for farming.
A ragged surface characterized by caves and sinkholes.
A type of landscape characterized by marshes and wetlands.
Which of the following human activities can decrease the incidence of mass wasting?
Improving drainage from the slope
Grading surfaces to increase the slope
Cutting in to the base of slopes in order to build houses
Road construction on the slope
Removing vegetation such as trees and grass from the slope.
Mid-ocean volcanism produces what type of rock?
Based on hegemonic theory, how is global peace achieved?
When two countries dominate.
When multiple countries debate policies.
When one country dominates.
When more than two countries dominate.
Appalachian mining does not cause subsidence.
Which of the following natural hazards is the number 1 disaster in the United States in the past century?
Where are the majority of the active volcanoes in the United States?
Washington, Oregon and California
Wyoming and Idaho
There are NO active volcanoes in the United States
Mauna Loa in Hawaii is an example of which type of volcano?
What is subsidence?
A swelling of the ground surface
A drop in groundwater level prior to an earthquake
A sinking of the ground surface
A slumping of the ground surface
An increase air pressure at high elevations
Where does a meandering river run the fastest?
Near the point bars
Along the floodplain
At the mouth of the river
On the outside of a bend
On the inside of a bend
What should you do during a flood?
Drive your car through water to get to safety.
Swim across water to a safer location.
Go to a bridge and watch the water rise.
Move to higher ground away from the river.
Wade into the water to see how deep it really is.
Which of the following statements are not true of avalanches?
Avalanches can be caused by vibrations.
The incidence of avalanches depends on the temperature of the snow.
Incidences of avalanches depends on the shape of the snow.
Avalanches tend to follow the same paths.
Avalanches are very rare.
What is the role of a drainage basin?
Soil in a drainage basin is very permeable and flood waters can drain into them instead of going into larger rivers.
Soil in a drainage basin is very impermeable and water is held there to evaporate instead of going into larger rivers.
Drainage basins contain an intricate series of underground tunnels that drain water into the ocean.
Water from rivers or streams drain into the basin.
Water from the basin drains into the rivers or streams.
Why is Los Angeles so massive?
The pleasant climate brought in too many people too quickly.
Earthquake codes prevent tall buildings.
The residents are wealthier and require more space.
Poor city planning.
What is the name of the most active volcano in the United States?
Mt. St. Helens
What is the most important element that tends to drive mass wasting events?
Currently, who is the global hegemon?
The United States
The United Kingdom
Snow avalanche usually move down chutes that have previously produced avalanches, making it easier to predict where an avalanche will occur.
What is the floodplain?
A flat area adjacent to the river carved out by rivers.
The steep sides of the river that holds in the water.
Earthen mounds that run parallel to the river and hold the water in during floods.
A flat area that rivers move to when they come down from a steep mountain.
The area around the river that is the limit to how far it will ever flood.
Which of the following is the slowest mass wasting process?
Volcanoes contribute to global warming.
Why are composite volcanoes dangerous?
They are associated with higher viscosity magma
They produce a lot of pyroclastic materials
They erupt gasses and ash into the atmosphere
They have dormant periods between eruptions
All of the above are reasons why composite volcanoes are dangerous
Which describes how geyser erupts?
Before volcanoes erupt, magma pushes groundwater out and up through openings in the ground.
The air becomes cool at night and hot ground water is pulled into the cool air.
Gas in magma is released and pushes groundwater up through a volcano vent.
Hot rocks heat groundwater, it boils, expands and pushes through openings in the ground.
Groundwater heats underground rocks, it cools, expands and pushes through openings in the ground.
Social sciences are just like hard sciences in that concrete laws are created.
Which of the following is not a coastal hazard?
Strong coastal currents
What is the primary difference between a Tropical Depression and a Tropical Storm?
Storm surge amount
Amount of rain
Amount of spin
Which of the following statements is true about coastlines?
Coastlines are the place where the continental crust meets the ocean crust.
Coastlines are constantly changing in shape and length.
Coastlines shape and length always stays the same.
Coastlines are always wide and sandy.
Coastlines are at the boundaries of different plates.
Cyclone is a word used to describe storms that are particularly intense.
What are clouds made from?
Exhaust from power plants
Smoke and other particles
Water, vapor, and ice.
Why does Europe have a more moderate winter than the United States?
Europe's winter air mass is tropical
Europe's winter air mass is continental
Europe's winter air mass is polar
Europe's winter air mass is maritime
What does the Fujita Scale use to classify tornadoes?
Amount of damage
Temperature of the core
Scientifically speaking, what causes thunder?
A bolt of lightening creating a void in the air
A fast updraft of air from frontal movement
Air masses colliding at high elevations
Which of the following air masses is the coldest on Earth?
Where is the calmest part of the storm?
Just outside the rain bands
In the northwest corner of the storm
Who said religion is the opium of society
Which way do winds around a Low Pressure in the Northern Hemisphere blow?
Hurricanes in the tropical Atlantic Ocean tend to originate as
minor perturbations of the jet stream
typhoons off the Iberian Peninsula
major pressure lows over the equatorial ocean
thunder storms in the sahara
You notice the tree leaves flipping over from the sudden rising of the air in your backyard. What should you expect?
What is the difference between Eustatic and Relative sea level?
Eustatic refers to the global sea level; Relative refers to local sea level near land
Eustatic refers to sea levels that are advantageous for shipping; Relative sea level refers to high and low tides
There is no difference between them
Eustatic refers to sea levels that don't change; Relative refers to local sea level
Eustatic refers to global sea level; Relative refers to sea levels with respect to mid-ocean ridges.
Race characteristics so not matter in the United States and allows for rational discussions.
Which organization is a staunch advocate for animals and against animal testing, in all forms?
Water moving paralell to the shore is called
Air moves from high pressure to low pressure, creating winds.
What drives the movement of wind?
Earth's internal heat
The Coriolis force
Which of the following places has the lowest risk for hurricanes
The size of waves depends on which of the following?
Length of time the wind blows
Distance the wind blows over surface
What does the Saffir-Simpson Scale us to classify hurricanes?
Duration of rain
Central core temperature
What is a tropical Typhoon?
A tropical cyclone in the Northern Atlantic
A tropical cyclone in Western Pacific (Japan)
A tornado with hail
A name for a hurricane once it makes landfall
An extratropical cyclone that moves up a coastline
Native Americans (Cree and Seminole) used what to determine if a hurricane as on the horizon and when the hurricane as over?
An ibis bird
What type of front invovlves fast moving thunderstorms and severe weather?
None of the above
Which of the following are true bout thunderstorms?
Thunderstorms are common in the late afternoon during summer
Thunderstorms are frequent in Florida and the Midwest United States
Thunderstorms are associated with lightning
Thunderstorms are usually associated with Cold Fronts
All of the above are true of thunderstorms
Which of the following hard stabilizations are built parallel to shore on land to protect cliffs or bluffs?
Which of the following coastlines are at risk from Coastal Hazards?
The Oregon coastlines on the Pacific Ocean
The Louisiana coastlines on the Gulf of Mexico
The Ohio coastlines on Lake Erie
The Florida coastlines on the Atlantic Ocean
All of the above are at risk of some coastal hazard
What type of air mass is associated ith the great deserts of the world (Sahara, Outback, etc.)?
What type of front has cold air moving into warm air?
Temperature inversion are so dangerous because
they destabalize the air, causing flight problems.
they allow for pollution to become trapped next to the earth.
they aid in tornado formations
they create unstable weather
Hurricanes receive their energy from what?
the Sahara desert
warm summer winds
warm ocean water
arm solar radiation
What is a storm surge?
A large amount of rainfall
A large amount of wind
A large increase in sea level
A sudden increase in wind
A sudden increase in rainfall
The law states researchers must do what in order to use animals test subjects?
get approval from their local jurisdiction
provide documentation about the need of the study
Only select certain types of animals
From our discussion group presentations, irrational behaviors and thoughts often occur when people practice which of the following?
Which of the following is an anticyclone?
High pressure system
Low pressure system
What is the correct order of Tropical Cyclone development (least to most developed)?
Hurricane, Tropical Depression, Tropical Disturbance
Tropical Depression, Tropical Disturbance, Tropical Storm, Hurricane
Tropical Storm, Tropical Depression, Tropical Disturbance, Hurricane
Hurricane, Tropical Storm, Tropical Disturbance, Tropical Depression.
Tropical Disturbance, Tropical Depression, Tropical Storm, Hurricane
Which of the following hard stabilization is built in an effort to protect boats in the harbor?
Religious institutions are more restrictive than public institutions when it comes to animal testing.
Which type of mass brings bitterly cold air in the United States during the winter months?
At exactly what latitude would one find polar air?
Which type of air mass dominates Georgia's summer months?
Which part of the atmosphere are the clouds found?