Earth Science chapter 7 part 1

Question 1 of 54

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________ was an ancient reptile that lived in South America and Africa during the late Paleozoic.

Select one of the following:

  • Granopteris

  • Monastarious

  • Glossopteris

  • Mesosaurus

Question 2 of 54

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In the early part of the twentieth century, ________ argued forcefully for continental drift.

Select one of the following:

  • Karl Wagner

  • Peter Rommel

  • Alfred Wegener

  • Bill Kohl

Question 3 of 54

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The former late Paleozoic super continent is known as ________.

Select one of the following:

  • Pandomonia

  • Pancakea

  • Pangaea

  • Panatopia

Question 4 of 54

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Today, ________ is in about the same geographic position as during late Paleozoic time.

Select one of the following:

  • India

  • South America

  • Australia

  • Antarctica

Question 5 of 54

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Which of the following paleoclimatic evidence supports the idea of the late Paleozoic supercontinent in the Southern Hemisphere?

Select one of the following:

  • lithified loess (wind-blown) deposits in the deserts of Chile, Australia, and Africa

  • tillites (rocks formed by glaciers) in South Africa and South America

  • thick sediments in the Amazon and Congo deltas of South America and Africa

  • cold water fossils in the deep-water sediments of the South Atlantic abyssal plain

Question 6 of 54

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The ________ is an example of an active, continent-continent collision.

Select one of the following:

  • Arabian Peninsula slamming into North Africa under the Red Sea

  • westward movement of the South American plate over the Nazca plate

  • northern movement of Baja California and a sliver of western California toward the Hawaiian Islands

  • northward movement of India into Eurasia

Question 7 of 54

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Pull-apart rift zones are generally associated with a ________ plate boundary.

Select one of the following:

  • transform

  • divergent

  • convergent

  • all plate boundaries

Question 8 of 54

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The temperature below which magnetic material can retain a permanent magnetization is called the ________.

Select one of the following:

  • Darcy temperature

  • Vine temperature

  • Bullard point

  • Curie point

Question 9 of 54

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A very long-lived magma source located deep in the mantle is called a ________.

Select one of the following:

  • magma welt

  • basalt spout

  • melt well

  • hot spot

Question 10 of 54

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Linear, magnetic patterns associated with mid-ocean ridges are configured as ________.

Select one of the following:

  • concentric circles about a rising plume of hot mantle rocks and magma

  • reversed magnetizations along the rift valleys and normal magnetizations along the ridge

  • normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly parallel to the ridge

  • normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly perpendicular to the ridge axis

Question 11 of 54

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The ________ is (are) a logical evolutionary analog of the African Rift Valleys ten million years from now.

Select one of the following:

  • Ural Mountains

  • San Andreas fault

  • Peru-Chile trench

  • Red Sea

Question 12 of 54

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A typical rate of seafloor spreading in the Atlantic Ocean is ________.

Select one of the following:

  • 2 feet per year

  • 0.1 inches per year

  • 20 feet per year

  • 2 centimeters per year

Question 13 of 54

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Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth's lithospheric plates?

Select one of the following:

  • gravitational attractive forces of the Sun and Moon

  • electrical and magnetic fields localized in the inner core

  • export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere

  • swirling movements of the molten iron particles in the outer core

Question 14 of 54

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The continental drift hypothesis was rejected primarily because Alfred Wegener could not ________.

Select one of the following:

  • find geologic similarities on different continents

  • disprove competing theories that were more accepted by scientists

  • identify a mechanism capable of moving continents

  • all of the above

Question 15 of 54

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All of the following are evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics except for ________.

Select one of the following:

  • changes in the Moon's orbit due to shifting plates

  • ocean floor drilling

  • hot spots

  • paleomagnetism

Question 16 of 54

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________ was never proposed as evidence supporting the existence of Pangaea.

Select one of the following:

  • Geometrical fit between South America and Africa

  • Islands of Precambrian rocks along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

  • Late Paleozoic glacial features

  • Similar fossils on different continents

Question 17 of 54

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Which one of the following most accurately describes the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands?

Select one of the following:

  • stratovolcanoes associated with subduction and a convergent plate boundary

  • shield volcanoes fed by a long-lived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate

  • shield volcanoes associated with a mid-Pacific ridge and spreading center

  • stratovolcanoes associated with a mid-Pacific transform fault

Question 18 of 54

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Which of the following statements apply to the asthenosphere, but not the lithosphere?

Select one of the following:

  • zone in the upper mantle that deforms by plastic flowage

  • cool, rigid layer of crust and upper mantle that forms the tectonic plates

  • deforms mainly by brittle fracturing and faulting

  • partial melting of rising granitic plumes produces huge volumes of basaltic magma

Question 19 of 54

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Which of the following statements apply to the asthenosphere, but not the lithosphere?

Select one of the following:

  • zone in the upper mantle that deforms by plastic flowage

  • cool, rigid layer of crust and upper mantle that forms the tectonic plates

  • deforms mainly by brittle fracturing and faulting

  • partial melting of rising granitic plumes produces huge volumes of basaltic magma

Question 20 of 54

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New oceanic crust and lithosphere are formed at ________.

Select one of the following:

  • divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of rhyolitic magma

  • convergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of rhyolitic magma

  • divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma

  • convergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma

Question 21 of 54

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Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sinks into the mantle at ________.

Select one of the following:

  • subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries

  • transform fault zones along divergent plate boundaries

  • rift zones along mid-ocean ridges

  • sites of long-lived, hot spot volcanism in the ocean basins

Question 22 of 54

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Deep ocean trenches are surficial evidence for ________.

Select one of the following:

  • rifting beneath a continental plate and the beginning of continental drift

  • sinking of oceanic lithosphere into the mantle at a subduction zone

  • rising of hot asthenosphere from deep in the mantle

  • transform faulting between an oceanic plate and a continental plate

Question 23 of 54

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A transform plate boundary is characterized by ________.

Select one of the following:

  • stratovolcanoes on the edge of a plate and shield volcanoes on the adjacent plate

  • two converging oceanic plates meeting head-on and piling up into a mid-ocean ridge

  • a divergent boundary where the continental plate changes to an oceanic plate

  • a deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions

Question 24 of 54

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Which one of the following is an important fundamental assumption underlying the plate tectonic theory?

Select one of the following:

  • Earth's magnetic field originates in the outer core.

  • Earth's diameter has been essentially constant over time

  • Radioactive decay slows down at the extreme pressures of the inner core.

  • Earth's ocean basins are very old and stable features

Question 25 of 54

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The modern-day Red Sea is explained by plate tectonics theory because it is ________.

Select one of the following:

  • a tiny remnant of a once immense ocean that was closed as Africa moved toward Asia

  • the site of a transform fault along which Arabia is moving away from Africa

  • a rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate

  • a rare example of a two-continent subduction zone where the African continental plate is sinking under the Arabian continental plate

Question 26 of 54

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Mount St. Helens and the other Cascade volcanoes are ________.

Select one of the following:

  • young, active stratovolcanoes built on a continental margin above a sinking slab of oceanic lithosphere

  • a row of young, active, shield volcanoes built as western North America moved over a hot spot deep in the mantle

  • old, deeply eroded stratovolcanoes built before the Pacific Ocean existed

  • old, deeply eroded, basaltic shield volcanoes built when western North America was over the present-day site of the Hawaiian hot spot

Question 27 of 54

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The volcanoes and deep valleys of east Africa are related to a ________.

Select one of the following:

  • continental rift along which parts of the African continent are beginning to slowly separate

  • fault allowing Arabia to slip westward past east Africa and penetrate into Turkey

  • transform fault aligned with the Red Sea carrying the Arabian and African blocks in opposite directions

  • continental collision zone between Africa and the Zagros Mountains along the southern margin of Eurasia

Question 28 of 54

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The Aleutian Islands occur at a ________.

Select one of the following:

  • convergent boundary on a volcanic arc above a northward-subducting Pacific plate

  • transform boundary where North America has moved towards Alaska

  • divergent boundary where shield volcanoes are forming

  • convergent, continental margin with uplifted fault blocks, much like those of the Basin and Range Province

Question 29 of 54

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________ most effectively outline the edges of the lithospheric plates.

Select one of the following:

  • Lines of active stratovolcanoes

  • Margins of the continental shelves

  • The locations of deep mantle hot spots

  • Lines of earthquake epicenters

Question 30 of 54

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Deep-oceanic trenches are most abundant around the rim of the ________ ocean basin.

Select one of the following:

  • Atlantic

  • Indian

  • Arctic

  • Pacific

Question 31 of 54

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Where would you drill to recover samples of the oldest basalts of the oceanic crust, which are Jurassic in age?

Select one of the following:

  • crest of the East Pacific, mid-ocean ridge

  • oceanic side of the Aleutian trench

  • just offshore from the Hawaiian Islands

  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge under Iceland

Question 32 of 54

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________ first related the symmetrical magnetic patterns in seafloor basalts to seafloor spreading at a mid-ocean ridge.

Select one of the following:

  • Evans and Novak

  • Vine and Matthews

  • Matthews and Marks

  • Wegener and Wilson

Question 33 of 54

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Early results of the Deep Sea Drilling Project clearly justified the conclusion that ________.

Select one of the following:

  • the oceans have not always contained most of Earth's water

  • the ocean basins are relatively young; most ocean basin rocks and sediments are Cretaceous or younger in age

  • Proterozoic rocks are found only as seamounts in the deepest parts of the ocean basins

  • the youngest sediments were deposited directly on the oldest seafloor basalts

Question 34 of 54

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Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

Select one of the following:

  • fossil evidence

  • fit of the continents

  • paleomagnetism

  • paleoclimates

Question 35 of 54

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Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

Select one of the following:

  • Curie point

  • paleomagnetism

  • magnetic poles

  • polar

Question 36 of 54

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Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

Select one of the following:

  • oceanic ridge

  • seafloor spreading

  • arc volcanoes

  • divergent

Question 37 of 54

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Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

Select one of the following:

  • Hawaii

  • island arc

  • volcanic arc

  • subduction

Question 38 of 54

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Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

Select one of the following:

  • Hawaii

  • island arc

  • volcanic arc

  • subduction

Question 39 of 54

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Choose the option which does not fit the pattern

Select one of the following:

  • slab pull

  • mantle drag

  • ridge push

  • slab suction

Question 40 of 54

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The oldest rocks on the seafloor are much younger than the oldest rocks on the continents.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 41 of 54

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Earth's radius and surface area are slowly increasing to accommodate the new oceanic crust being formed at mid-ocean ridges.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 42 of 54

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Hawaii is the oldest island of the Hawaiian Island chain.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 43 of 54

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The oldest rocks of the oceanic crust are found in deep ocean trenches far away from active, mid-ocean ridges

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 44 of 54

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As the South Atlantic basin widens by seafloor spreading, Africa and South America are moving closer together.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 45 of 54

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In general, rocks of the continental crust are less dense than rocks of the oceanic crust.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 46 of 54

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During various times in the geologic past, the polarity of Earth's magnetic field has been reversed.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 47 of 54

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The rate of seafloor spreading is, on the average, about one meter per year.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 48 of 54

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Wegener's continental drift hypothesis was weakened because a viable mechanism for moving the continents was lacking.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 49 of 54

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During the geologic past, the magnetic field poles have generally been very close to Earth's rotational poles.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 50 of 54

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Seafloor spreading rates can be estimated if the geologic ages of the magnetic field reversals are independently known.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 51 of 54

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The volcanoes of Hawaii are localized above a deep mantle hot spot; they are not part of the East Pacific oceanic ridge

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 52 of 54

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Iceland is a good example of an island arc, formed from an oceanic-oceanic plate collision.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 53 of 54

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An extensive, late Paleozoic glaciation affected southern India, southern Africa and southeastern South America.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 54 of 54

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The Himalayan Mountains are the tectonic product of a collision between India and Eurasia that began in Eocene time and still continues.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False
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Earth Science chapter 7 part 1

saradiaz16
Quiz by , created over 2 years ago

Quiz on Earth Science chapter 7 part 1, created by saradiaz16 on 08/05/2014.

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