Large waves are generated by
Short duration that wind blows in a given
Variable wind directions
None of these
When waves begin to interact with the seafloor this happens
wave height increasese
wave steepness decreases and the wave breaks
Both a and b
Water moving up the beach after the wave breaks is termed
The effect of the concentration of wave energies on headlands is to
make the coastline more irregular
make the coastline straighter
produce more sand dunes along the coast
erode the bays
Groins are usually constructed to
stabilize beaches by lessening erosion
to protect boats along the coast
to prevent cliff erosion
to produce a calm environment along the coast for organisms of the sea
Storm surges result in part from
strong winds associated with tsunami
high atmospheric pressure along the coast associated with storms
low atmospheric pressure along the coast associated with storms
all of these
Lake waves would be largest when
winds are strong and fetch is short
winds are strong and fetch is long
winds are weak and fetch is short
winds are weak and fetch is long
Mid-latitude beaches that have seasonal patterns of erosion and deposition
mostly erode during the summer due to strong waves
grow during winter due to sediment deposition associated with stronger waves
mostly grow during summer due to sediment deposition associated with
Dams on rivers supplying sediment to beaches will result
in the growth of the beach
in erosion of the beach
in growth or erosion of the beach depending on the season and the amount of
water released by the dams
none of these, dams do not impact beaches
These two factors are important in the development of dunes next to beaches
mostly unidirectional winds, sufficient sand supply
much vegetation, humid climate
desert climate, multidirectional winds
desert climate, mostly unidirectional winds
These are erosional coastal features
a,c, and d
Emergent coasts are associated with
uplift related to tectonic activity
rising sea level
sinking of the land due to tectonic activity
All of the above
What caused most coastlines to become submerged over the past 10,000 years?
subsidence of land
sea level rise
growth of icesheets
Which of the following is not a result of coastal deposition?
Regular patterns of smooth, rounded waves are called
Waves in shallow water that "feel bottom" are ________ and more ________ spaced
than the swell they are related to.
Wave action works to straighten a coast as wave energy focuses around headlands
and tends to disperse energy in coves and bays in a process called
Particles of sand, gravels, and shells that move along the shore form the
beach drift or longshore drift
When people go surfing or swimming along a coast, they often find—after spending
time in the water—that they are no longer in the area in which they first entered the water.
In other words, they find that they have moved downshore, even though they did not
deliberately move in that direction. This occurs because of
Which of the following is false regarding tsunamis?
They can travel at a speed of several hundred miles per hour
They have very long wavelengths in the open ocean
They are very tall in the open ocean
They slow down as they approach shore
Which of the following is not an example of an erosional coastal landform?
A terrace is
an uplifted sea stack
an uplifted wave-cut platform
an erosional surface created by a massive tsunami
an uplifted foreshore dune
Which of the following is not an example of a depositional coastal landform?
wave cut platform
Which of the following conditions is not conducive to the formation of barrier islands?
tectonically active coasts
sediment supply from rivers
low tidal range
presence of continental shelf
Sea level rise associated with global warming should be expected to:
Increase rates of sediment delivery to deltas
Increase rates of coastal erosion
Decrease rates of longshore sediment transport
Increase deposition on coastal dunes
Erode the surface of the Earth
Warm, fold, and uplift rock
Control soil formation processes
Form sedimentary rock
Linear lakes forming in East Africa because of what
Which of the following are located along the mid-ocean ridges?
outcrops of granite
old oceanic sediments
The process that describes the depression and rebound of continental crust due to
adding or removing weight is called:
A spontaneous downslope movement of Earth materials driven by gravity is called
Rates of erosion are generally greater
near the mouth of a river
in dry desert valleys
Landslides occur when
When a threshold is reached
the internal friction is overcome by the force of gravity.
when driving forces exceed resisting forces
Creep involves movement of soil
at a rapid speed
At a slow, almost non-distinguishable pace
rapidly at first, then slows down
slowly at first, then rapidly speeds up
What is the discharge of a river with a depth of 0.5 meters, width of 10 meters and a flow
velocity of 0.5 meters/second
As the discharge of a stream increases, which of the following also happens?
The rate of flow decreases.
Channel width increases but channel depth decreases.
Width, depth, and velocity all increase.
Streams that receive large loads of coarse sediment are likely to have:
a) Narrower channels than streams that receive little sediment
b) Steeper channel slopes than streams that receive little sediment
c) Frequent large waterfalls
d) Straight rather than meandering channels
Floodplains are formed by
a) Erosion of valley-side bluffs
b) Deposition on point bars of meandering streams and by overbank flows
c) Repeated floods that erode broad flat surfaces.
d) Chemical weathering at the elevation of the water table
Which of the following will lead to the development of stream terraces?
a) tectonic uplift which steepens channels
b) decreased sediment yield into the stream
c) a drop in base level on tributaries of a larger stream
d) any of the above
The following are all forms of ablation EXCEPT:
) The material in a glacial moraine is usually
a) sorted by weight.
b) sorted by size.
c) sorted by weight and size.
Which of the following is false regarding the Pleistocene ice sheets in North America?
a) At their maximum, they extended only to the present-day Canadian border.
b) Their maximum thickness was about 2 km (1.2 mi).
c) They dramatically altered the landscape of much of the U.S.
d) The edges of the ice sheets were not even; rather, they were characterized by ice
lobes that formed curved edges.
e) They disappeared by 7,000 years ago.
The average density of the Earth is 5.5 g/cm3
; whereas the average density of
the continental crust is 2.7 g/cm3
and oceanic crust is 3.3 g/cm3
. Which statement best
explains the discrepancy between the densities of the Earth’s crust versus the overall
the deeper layers of the Earth are made up of heavier elements such as iron,
nickel, and magnesium
b) the sun’s effect on the density of the Earth’s crust has not been calculated
c) these numbers change with every earthquake occurrence
d) adding the moon’s density to the density of the continental and oceanic crusts
adds up to Earth’s average density
At which of the following locations does subduction occur?
a) along collision zones between two continents
b) at sea floor spreading zones
c) above mantle hot spots
d) along collision zones between continental and oceanic plates