aka The Great War; fought from 1914-1919; fought mostly in the trenches; resulted in over 20 million casualities
These are the five main causes of World War I. Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism, and Assassination.
arms race between countries in Europe before WW1; from 1890-1910 the amount of money nations spent on their militaries doubled
Name for the alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy vs. alliance between France, Russia, and Great Britain
This cause of World War I was based on an intense pride and loyalty to one's nation.
This cause of World War I resulted from the competition among European nations for colonies in Africa and Asia from 1880-1914. This created tension, especially between Germany and Great Britain.
the spark that started World War I. the heir to throne of Austria Hungary was murdered on June 28, 1914, by a Serbian nationalist while visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia. against Serbia
19 year old Serbian nationalist who shot & killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand
This Serbian rebel group tassassinated Archduke Ferdinand after several failed attempts.
country that started WW1 with their invasion of Serbia after the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand on June 28, 1914 .After World War I it split up into several nations.
(a.k.a. the Allies): France, the United Kingdom, Russia
Germany , Austria-Hungary, & the Otttoman Empire
style of warfare was common in WWI, due to the invention of the machine gun and heavy artillery. It included digging long trenches, separated by barbed wire and a no mans land
territory between the opposing front trenches was marked with huge craters caused by the shelling. Both sides filled this land with barbed wire to slow down the enemy. The machine gun and the new long-range rifles made movement in this area almost impossible.
When the whistle blew it was time for soldiers to go "over the top". This meant leaving your trench and climbing over the parapet(a vertical extension of the trench usually sandbags or piled up dirt) to No Man's Land
battle fought just north of Paris in September 1914, a stalemate was reached. The Germans, who had lost the battle, had made a hasty retreat and then dug in. The French, who couldn't dislodge the Germans, then also dug in. Neither side could force the other to move; after this battle no one believed that the war would done and over in a few months
War of Attrition
a war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people for war and affects the lives of all citizens living in the warring countries; During WWII it meant the civilian population became targets
new weapon invented by an American Hiriam Maxim, used in WW1; could fire more than 600 bullets a minute; changed warfare
Large field guns that had a long range and could fires shells which exploded on impact
called "land ships"; the answer to the stalemate created by trench warfare; they were first used at the Battle of the Somme
most deadly poinson gas used in WW1. It was fired into trenches in shells. It is colorless and takes about 12 hours to take effect. Caused blistering skin, vomiting, and internal bleeding. Death could take up to 5 weeks
a psychological reaction caused by the trauma of WW1; Siegfried Sassoon and Wilfred Owen who wrote famous poems about WW1 experienced it; today we call it PTSD-Post traumatic stress disorder
Germany did not want to fight a 2 front war so Germany planned to defeat France rapidly(less than 6 weeks) and then turn to the eastern front for a major offensive on Russia.
1915, when a German U-boat (submarine) sunk the British ocean liner RMS Lusitania. Considered by Americans to be a neutral ship that carried mostly passengers (159 were Americans), Americans were furious when the Germans sank it,
In early 1917, Germany sent Mexico a coded message promising portions of U.S. land in return for Mexico joining World War 1 against the United States.
In 1917, Russia became swept up in an internal revolution that removed the czar from power. The new communist government wanted to remove Russia from World War I
czar of Russia. In 1914, Nicholas II made the fateful decision to drag Russia into World War I. Russia was unprepared to handle the military and economic costs.
Father of Communism; co-wrote a book called The Communist Manifesto; calls for an uprising by workers to take control of "the factors of production"-land, labor, capital
peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk between Russia and the Central Powers, marking Russia's exit from World War I.
the peace treaty that ended World War 1; however, a number of its terms were so controversial, that it also set the stage for World War 2.
Article 231 of the Versialles Peace Treaty, also known as the "war guilt" clause. It placed sole responsibility for the war on Germany's shoulders. As a result, germany had to pay reparations to the allies.
this term refers to the payments and transfers of property that Germany was required to make under the treaty of Versailles.
president who led the US during WWI. Later wrote a plan for post-WWI peace known as the Fourteen Points.
plan for after (post)World War I outlined by President Wilson in 1918. This plan called for self-determination (countries in Africa and Asia govern themselves), freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations.
When the government of the Ottoman Empire (Turks) killed 1 million Armenians in suspicion that they were working for Russia.
Group of Russian revolutionaries who seized (took) power in Russia in October 1917, followed Karl Marx's theory of communism; willing to sacrifice everything for change.
Karl Marx name for the working class. According to Marx workers in industrialized countries like Great Britain should rise up and rebell. These workers would then form "a dictatorship of the proletariat." This meant that the proletariat--the workers--would rule the country.