____ sometimes occur when a person experiencing sleep paralysis they begin to wake up and include bizarre episodes, such as sensing that an alien being is in the bedroom ; a suffocating feeling as if something is pressing on the chest; or feeling like they are floating out of their bodies.
REM behavior disorder
Seymour is just waking up when he realizes that he is paralyzed. He hears buzzing sounds and feels electrical sensations shooting throughout his body. Seymour
is experiencing REM behavior disorder.
is experiencing narcolepsy.
may also experience hypnopompic hallucinations during this episode.
may also experience hypnic jerks during this episode.
Regarding dream content, which of the following statements is/are TRUE?
Many dreams can be viewed as just a different form of thinking.
Actions in dreams usually take place between the dreamer and two or three other emotionally important people.
Dreams can make a difference in our lives by warning us of unhealthy habits and risky decisions.
All of these statements are true.
____ lead(s) users to take larger and larger doses of a drug to get the desired effect.
Reduced activity neurotransmitters
Which of the following is classified as a stimulant?
In mild dosages, barbiturates have an effect similar to
Perls believed that dreams are best interpreted as
a rehash of the occurrences of the day
a message about what is missing in our lives
random brain activity with little meaning
After pairing the CS and US in a series of conditioning trials, the organism learns to respond to the CS alone. This learned behavior is then termed the
Three-year-old Johnny was classically conditioned to salivate to a bell that was paired with lemon juice. After this conditioned response was extinguished, the experimenter presented the bell the following day, and Johnny responded by salivating again to the bell. at least at first. Johnny's return to the learned response is known as
Three-year-ld Jonny was classically conditioned to salivate to a bell that was impaired with lemon juice. Johnny also salivates to the sound of a ringing telephone and to a doorbell, even though they were never used as a conditioning stimuli. Johnny's salivation to the ringing telephone and to the doorbell illustrate
If you could give a child her favorite licorice candy for doing well in school and she continues to do well in school the licorice candy is
a reward and a reinforcer
a reward, but not a reinforcer
a reinforcer, but not a reward
neither a reinforcer nor a reward
Pigeons and rate who are reinforced on fixed interval schedules immediately after they receive reinforcer and do not start again until just before the next scheduled reinforcement. This illustrates that animals
are "stuck in time."
cannot be used as easily trained as humans on the task.
are cognitive time travelers.
are strongly influenced by circadian rhythms that can help or hinder training.
Which of the following terms applies to the observation that responses reinforced in the presence of certain stimuli will occur under similar stimulus conditions?
operant reinforcement control
operant stimulus generalization
Six-year-old Mark watches his older brother working on his algebra homework. The main reason that Mark will be unable to model his brother;s mathematical calculations will be because
Mark does not admire his older brother enough.
Mark will not be reinforced by anyone if he works the math problems correctly.
Mark is probably unable to reproduce the modeled behavior correctly.
Mark did not observe his brother carefully enough to reproduce the calculations.
Self-management based on keeping records of response frequencies is known as
the Premack principal
frequency distributional results
Five-year old Jaycee learned her "ABCs" by repeating them over and over again. Jaycee learned the alphabet through
According to economist Jesse Shapiro, the intent of much advertising is to
lie to the consumer regarding their product
provoke creative thinking in consumers about how this product can benefit them
"jam" the consumer's memory with positive impressions of a product
"frighten" the consumer into buying a product that will prolong life and youth
Greg is watching television when a beer commercial comes on that he has seen many times. In this commercial, a boy goes to a cool party, sees an attractive girl, flashes his favorite beer, and gets the girl. A year later, a friend asks Greg where he met his girlfriend, and he relates to a scenario very similar to the beer commercial, although his girlfriend does not remember any alcoholic beverages being served at this small "party" where they met. According to Jesse Shapiro, Greg's creation of a "memory" that never really happened occurred because advertisers are attempting to
"prime" implicit memories
"jam" your memories
create the serial position effect
elicit semantic memories rather than episodic ones
According to economist Jesse Shapiro, the more positive fictional commercials we see, the less likely we are to remember an actual negative experience with a product because
the commercial produces an indelible implicit memory that is difficult to eradicate from one's memory
of the impact of peer pressure on people's attitudes
the positive fictional memories of the commercial "jam," or block, our abillity to remember actual negative memories when deciding whether to buy a product
of cognitive dissonance and out tendency to rationalize our decisions
The key to the cognitive interview is
the use of progressive relaxation
the use of progressive part recollection and recovery of memories
priming of eidetic imagery
recreating the crime scene
according to the serial position effect, you are most likely to forget the ___ items on a list.
first and last
___ is the ability to correctly identify previously learned information
regarding our memories for people, which of the following statements is/are TRUE?
encoding failures affect our memories of people
we all tend to categorize strangers in general terms
people inclinations to act as if members of other ethnic groups "all look alike" tends to disapperar when they learn more about one another as individuals
all of these statements are true