Define an electrophile
What are the reagents and conditions required for nitration of benzene?
Why is nitration of benzene carried out at 50 degrees?
Name a suitable halogen carrier for halogenation of benzene
Write two equations to show H2SO4 as a catalyst in nitration of benzene
What kind of reaction is nitration of benzene?
Write two equations to show AlBr3 as a catalyst in halogenation of benzene
Why does bromine readily react with cyclohexene and not benzene?
When bromine is added to cyclohexene what would you see?
What is the organic product called when sodium hydroxide is added to phenol?
What organic product is formed from the reaction of phenol with bromine?
Why does phenol react readily with bromine?
Name some uses of phenol
What is the reducing agent used to reduce ketones and aldehydes to alcohol?
What symbol is used in equations to represent the reducing agent?
What kind of reaction is the reduction of ketones and aldehydes?
Define a nucleophile
What is the systematic name for Bradys reagent?
If an orange precipitate forms upon addition of Bradys reaction what must be present in the solution?
How can you distinguish between a ketone and aldehyde?
How can you make Tollens reagent?
Is Tollens a reducing or oxidising agent?
How can you identify a carbonyl compound?
What is the advantage of using acid anhydrides and alcohol to form an ester instead of an alcohol and carboxylic acid?
What are the products formed in acid hydrolysis of an ester
What is the catalyst in acid hydrolysis of an ester
What are the products formed during alkaline hydrolysis of an ester
What are the meanings of each symbol in the short hand notation for a fatty acid X:Y (N)
What is the structure of glycerol?
Which stereoisomer of fatty acids can pack closer together?
What are the functions of HDLs?
What are LDLs?
How do you make biodiesel?
What is a primary amine?
Why are amines defined as weak bases?
How can aliphatic amine be prepared?
What kind of reaction is the preparation of primary amines?
Why is excess ammonia used in the preparation of primary amines?
How can aromatic amines be prepared?
What products are formed from the reaction of nitrobenzene with HCl in presence of tin?
What is diazotisation?
How is nitrous acid produced during preparation of the diazonium ion?
What is a coupling reaction?
Define a peptide
Define an alpha amino acid
What is the general formula of an amino acid
define a zwitterion
Define isoelectric point
What is amphoteric
What happens to an amino acid when the pH is more alkaline than the isoelectric point?
What happens if the pH is more acidic than the isoelectric point?
Define a condensation reaction
Which products are formed from the acidic hydrolysis of a dipeptide?
What are the reagents and conditions for acidic hydrolysis of polypeptides?
What products are formed from alkaline hydrolysis of a polypeptide?
What conditions and reagents are required for alkaline hydrolysis of polypeptides?
Define a chiral carbon
Define optical isomerism
What is the main difference between the different enantiomers?
What is a mixture containing both enantiomers called?
What kind of monomers does condensation polymerisation require?
What is the link called in polyesters?
Which two kind of monomers can be used to form polyesters?
How many waters are produced from n monomers during polymerisation?
Define a biodegradable polymer
Define a degradable polymer
What are the products from acidic hydrolysis of a polyamide
What are the products from alkaline hydrolysis of polyamides?
What are photodegradable polymers?
Define pharmacological activity
name some disadvantages of using a racemic mixture in a drug
How can you separate a racemic mixture?
How can you prepare a single isomer?
Define mobile phase
Define stationary phase
How does a solid stationary phase separate components?
How does a liquid stationary phase separate components?
What is the stationary phase in tlc?
define a chromatogram
how do you calculate the Rf value?
What are some limitations of tlc?
Describe how gas chromatography works
define retention time
Give some uses for GC-MS
Define chemical shift
What is TMS?
Why is TMS used?
what kind of solvents are used for NMR analysis?
What can a carbon NMR spectrum tell us?
What can a proton NMR tell us?
how many adjacent protons are next to the protons causing a triplet?
how can you identify a OH or NH peak?
What is the equation for the addition of D2O to ethanol?
Give some uses of NMR
What are some advantages of using NMR in medicine?