1.1a - Describe features of the Earth that distinguish it from other planets.
1.1b - Relate the blue sky to the preferential scattering of light in its atmosphere.
1.1c - Demonstrate an understanding of the benefits of the Earth’s
atmosphere to humankind.
1.1d - Describe some of the major causes of light pollution and demonstrate
an understanding of why it is undesirable to astronomers.
1.1e - Describe how Eratosthenes made the first accurate calculation of the
circumference of the Earth.
1.1f - Recall the shape and diameter of the Earth.
1.1g - Describe the evidence that the Earth is approximately spherical.
1.1h - Recall the rotation period of Earth and the time to rotate 1 degree.
1.1i - Demonstrate an understanding of the terms: equator, tropics,
latitude, longitude, pole, horizon, meridian and zenith.
1.1j - Demonstrate an understanding of the drawbacks to astronomers of the Earth’s atmosphere and relate these to the need for optical and infra-red observatories to be sited on high mountains or in space.
1.1k - Describe the features of reflecting and reflecting telescopes (detailed
ray diagrams not needed)
1.1l - Demonstrate an understanding of why the world’s largest telescopes
are reflectors rather than refractors.
1.1m - Demonstrate an understanding that the Earth’s atmosphere is
transparent to visible light, microwaves and some radio waves.
1.1n - Interpret data on the effect of the Earth’s atmosphere on infra-red,
ultra-violet and X-rays.
1.1o - Describe where infra-red, ultra-violet and X-ray observatories are
sited and explain the reasons why.
1.1p - Describe the nature and discovery of the Van Allen Belts.
1.2a - Identify the Moon’s principal features, including the Sea of Tranquility, Ocean of Storms, Sea of Crises, the craters Tycho, Copernicus and Kepler, and the Apennine mountain range .
(Answers shown on reverse + Appenine mountains)
1.2b - Recall the Moon's diameter and it's approximate distance from Earth.
1.2c - Recall the Moon's rotational and orbital period.
1.2d - Demonstrate an understanding of why the far side of the Moon is not visible from Earth.
1.2e - Describe how astronomers know the appearance of the Moon’s far side and how it differs from the near side.
1.2f - Distinguish between the lunar seas (maria) and lunar highlands (terrae).
1.2g - Demonstrate an understanding of the origin of the lunar seas and craters.
ORIGIN OF LUNAR MARIA NEEDS TO BE CONFIRMED.
1.2h - Demonstrate an understanding that the relative numbers of craters in
the seas and highlands implies different ages of these features.
1.2i - Describe the nature of rilles and wrinkle ridges.
1.2j - Relate the lack of atmosphere to the Moon's low gravity.
1.2k - Describe the nature and purposes of the Apollo space programme and
its experimental packages (ALSEPs).
1.1l - Describe the likely origin of the Moon.
1.2m - Describe the evidence that allowed astronomers to develop the giant impact hypothesis.
1.3a - Demonstrate an understanding of how the Sun can be observed safely
by amateur astronomers.
1.3b - Recall the Sun's diameter and it's distance to Earth.
1.3c - Recall the temperature of the Sun's photosphere.
1.3d - describe the solar atmosphere and recall
the approximate temperature of the corona.
1.1e - Describe the appearance and explain the nature of sunspots.
1.1f - Recall that the Sun's rotation period varies at it's equator and poles.
1.1g - Demonstrate an understanding of how astronomers use observations
of sunspots to determine the Sun’s rotation period.
1.1h - Interpret data (for example a Butterfly Diagram) in order to describe
the long-term latitude drift of sunspots, determine the length of the
solar cycle and predict the year of the next solar maximum.
1.1i - Demonstrate an understanding on how the Sun's energy is generated.
1.1j - Describe how astronomers observe the Sun at different wavelengths.
1.3k - Demonstrate an understanding of the appearance of the Sun at
different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, including
visible, H-alpha, X-ray.
1.3l - Describe the structure and nature of solar wind.