a multi- factorial approach to understanding antisocial and aggressive behavior in children with a biological focus. review article of studies on neurological, nuropsychological and brain imaging studies. low resting heart rate a predictor of individual with a fearless temprement seeking excitement to raise arousal levels. Blakemore and choudhurys study sugests adolencent brain still forming final connections in pre frontal lobe till twenties. pre frontal cativity lower in impulsive aggresive antisocial individuals= why offending peaks in adolecence. pre frontal lobe damaged by malnutrition, drinking and smoking during pregnancy, poor parenting, physical abuse.
five males with boarderline mental retardation (agression, attempted rape, exhibitionisem, arson). urin samples over a 24 hour period analyed - found defficit of the enzime MAOM which ressulted in impaired seratonin (a nurotransmitter which plays an important role in regulating anger and agression.) metabolisem. likley to be responsable for beahviour and retardation.
almost 2000 14-15 year olds. interview and data collection used. high frequency offenders tended to commit a wider range of crimes. 44.8% of men and 30.6% of women committed at least one of the studied crimes in the year of the study. offenders more likely to be victims particularly violent offenders for violence. offenders on drugs more often. factors which may predispose offending; family/ social position, individual disposition, social situation, life style and routine activity, community context. lifestyle and individual characteristics had most effect on involvement in crime. more individual risk factors- weak fam and school bonds,weak morality, poor self control, poor parental monitoring and truancy- more likely to offend. lower class not a risk factor but = more risk factors.
BIOLOGICAL- DALY AND WILSON
do homocide rates vary with local life expectancy. correlation using survey data from census and school and police records. areas of chicargo with lower than average life expectancy - 54.3- 77.4. stongest negative correlation between Life expectancy and murder rates which ranged from 1.3 to 156 per 100,000 per anum. negative correlation also between life expectancy and absenteeisem from school. median age of new mothers 22.6 in ten areas with shortest life expectancy, 27.3 with longest life expectancy.
COGNITIVE- YOCHELSON + SAMENOW
14 years. interviews. 255 participants half NGRI's. 30 compleated it 9 genuinly changes.52 thinking patterns found inccluding constantly set self appart for others desired excitment at any cost, considered requests from techers at school imposition, super optimisem, feelings of worthlessness. freudian based talking therepy. considered cognitive errors. many could be symptoms of antisocial personality disorder considered very difficult to treat.
six stages of moral development 1-punishment and obedience orrientation 2-hedonistic orientation 3-interpersonal concordance orrientation 4-law and order orientation 5- social contract of legalistic orientation stage 6- universal ethical principal orientation. 58 boys aged 7-16 from chicargo- working and middle class. 10 dilemas 2 hour individual interviews. 1969 also in uk mexico, tiwan, turky , yucatan. some followed up at three year intervls to 36.
COGNITIVE- GUDJONSSON AND BOWNS
examin relationship between blame attribution and offence type in irland then cross balidat with same study in england. GABI- 42 item- used to messure attributions, mental element and guilt. 80 criminals serving sentences in n irland. 20 violence 40 sex offences and 20 property offences.sex offences = most guilt, then violence. little difference in mental element. violent highest external sex offenders lowest. violent irish prisoners showed less internal attributions, mental element and guilt and higher external.
411 boys age 8-9 in 1953/4, until and possible later than 48. Interview and analysis of criminal records used. 7% of offenders caused 50% of all crimes- chronic offenders. 77% of crimes committed by offenders who started before age 16. 161 had a conviction but self report suggested 93% had committed crimes. offenses and offenders peaked age 17. 91% of those who started a criminal career 10-13 re-offended. chronic offenders were more likely to have convicted parents, young mothers, high daring, delinquent siblings, low popularity. from 32 to 48 % living successful lives on the criteria of life success increased 10%.
9 principals of criminality.
its learntin intimate personal groups
involves normal learning mechanisms- so criminals are not abnormal. based on the two core assumptions that a crime occurs when the individual sees it as an appropriate situation to violate social norms and criminal laws and that this definition comes from past experience.