1. A radiation inversion (surface inversion) is produced by:
The cooling of upper air layers, it is more frequently in summer.
The warming of lower air in summer.
The cooling of lower air layers, it is more frequently in winter.
The warming of lower air in winter.
2. The thermal radiation (infrared radiation) is:
A short-wavelength radiation that reaches the Earth surface from the Sun.
A long-wavelength radiation emitted by the Earth, and also by the greenhouse gases in the
A microwave radiation coming from the space.
A short-wavelength radiation reflected by the clouds.
3. When water changes from vapour state to liquid phase in the atmosphere:
Sensible heat is absorbed from the atmosphere.
Latent heat is released to the atmosphere, due to condensation.
Latent heat is absorbed, due to evaporation in the atmosphere.
4. We can consider, approximately, as an adiabatic process:
Vertical motions in the atmosphere, outside regions of active precipitation.
A process with a transfer of mass and water to the atmosphere.
When the atmosphere reaches the radiation balance.
All are correct.
5. We consider the atmospheric stability...
Depending only on the Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate (DALR).
Depending only on the Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate (SALR).
Depending on the Environment Rate (ER) relative to DALR and SALR.
All are false.
6. The temperature of a dry air parcel at 1000 ft. is T=10oC, what will be its temperature if it descends adiabatically to ground (0 ft.)?
T (ground) = 7 oC
T (ground) = 10 oC
T (ground) = 0 oC
T (ground) = 13 oC
7. The conditions to develop a thunderstorm are:
Low CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy).
A thermal inversion and sufficient water vapour.
High CAPE, sufficient water vapour and a trigger action.
High CIN (Convective Inhibition Energy), a very low dew point temperature and a trigger
action to start the lifting process.
8. A downburst is:
A strong downdraft associated with severe thunderstorms, causing extreme windshear.
The anvil of an ordinary thunderstorm.
An extreme precipitation event, always followed by a tornado.
A lightning and icing event, associated with thunderstorms.
9. Select the false option about the pressure systems:
A thermal low is a thermal depression formed over warm surfaces, normally occurs over the continents in summer.
A cut-off low is a cold pool of air at high levels, separated from the main stream air that causes a potential area of instability and thunderstorm development.
A ridge is related to high pressures, and a trough is related to low pressures.
A depression is a pressure system where the air mass descend, and it always cover a larger area
than a typical anticyclone.
10. To predict future weather or climate, the weather services use:
The cabañuelas system, it has a very accurate skill.
Only one numerical weather prediction model, called HIRLAM.
Different weather prediction models for the weather forecast and different climate models for the
A simple model with the same grid resolution and physical parametrizations.
11. Which of the following statements about density is FALSE?
The density at surface levels is higher over Polar Regions than Equatorial ones.
The density at high levels is lower over Polar Regions than Equatorial ones.
Given any level of altitude, the density will be higher over the Polar Regions than
Given two air masses at the same temperature and different moisture, the air
mass with a higher moisture content will have a lower density.
12. If you are flying at 5500 ft and your deviation ISA is +4 oC, What will the density altitude?
13. If we consider only the terms with the largest orders of magnitude after applying a scale analysis to the air motion equations, which of the following statements is TRUE?
At synoptic scale there is only a balance between the Gradient Pressure Force and the Coriolis Force.
At synoptic scale there is a balance between Gradient Pressure Force and the Centrifugal Force.
At synoptic scale there is a balance between the Gradient Pressure Force and the Coriolis Force. Furthermore the vertical air movement is impeded.
At synoptic scale there is a balance between the Gradient Pressure Force and the Coriolis Force. Furthermore the vertical air movement is allowed.
14. Which of the following statements related to the geostrophic balance is FALSE?
The Gradient Pressure and Coriolis forces are balanced.
Wind is parallel to the isobars.
Low pressures are on the left side of the air movement.
Considering two places with different latitude but affected by the same Pressure
Gradient Force, the geostrophic wind will be stronger at the higher latitude place.
15. The balance of forces inducing the gradient wind associated with the “normal low” is as follows:
The Pressure Gradient force goes towards the centre of the Low pressure system and is opposite to the Centrifugal and Coriolis forces.
The Pressure Gradient and Coriolis forces go towards the centre of the Low pressure system and are opposite to the Centrifugal force.
All forces go towards the centre of the Low pressure system.
The Pressure Gradient force goes towards the outside of centre of the Low
pressure system and is opposite to the Centrifugal and Coriolis forces.
16. Anabatic winds are:
Up slope winds occurring during the daylight hours.
Down slope winds occurring during the nocturnal hours.
Strong winds occurring at the lee side of a mountain under mountain wave
A synoptic wind very intense.
17. In relation to the condensation in the atmosphere, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Warm parcels can maintain in the subsaturated state a higher water vapour concentration than cold parcels.
Cold parcels can maintain in the subsaturated state a higher water vapour concentration than warm parcels.
Under a same cooling warm parcels will condensate a higher water vapour concentration than cold parcels.
If the parcel is initially subsaturated, the larger cooling, the larger condensation.
18. Refer to the TAF for Zurich Airport
TAF LSZH 250716 00000KT 0100 FG VV001 BECMG 0810 0800 VV002 BECMG1012 23005KT
2500 BKN005 TEMPO 1316 6000 SCT007 =
Which of these statements best describes the weather that can be expected at 1200 UTC?