Pulmonary Pathology :)

Plymouth Med
Quiz by Plymouth Med, updated more than 1 year ago
Plymouth Med
Created by Plymouth Med over 3 years ago
54
1

Description

Young Adult teach courtesy of Dayo. Credits entitled to him.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
A woman in her mid-30s all of sudden begins to feel dizzy and is panting. She has angina and a paresthesia in her fingers. These symptoms worsen until she feels like she is going to die. The total episode lasts for about 10 minutes before resolving completely.
Answer
  • Acute asthma
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Panic attack
  • Temporal lobe epilepsy
  • TIA

Question 2

Question
A 20-year-old woman overdosed on paracetamol tablets 9 hours ago. Which is the single most appropriate emergency treatment?
Answer
  • Activated charcoal
  • Diazepam
  • Flumazenil
  • N-Acetylcysteine
  • Naloxone

Question 3

Question
A young woman has panic attacks when she has to attend formal meetings at work. Even socially, she feels anxious when meeting friends.
Answer
  • Adjustment disorder
  • Generalized anxiety disorder
  • Panic disorder
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Social phobia

Question 4

Question
The aorta [blank_start]passes[blank_end] [blank_start]through[blank_end] the diaphragm at level T[blank_start]12[blank_end].
Answer
  • passes
  • through
  • 12

Question 5

Question
The [blank_start]phrenic[blank_end] nerves ( C[blank_start]3[blank_end] C[blank_start]4[blank_end] and C[blank_start]5[blank_end]) supply the diaphragm.
Answer
  • 5
  • 4
  • 3
  • phrenic

Question 6

Question
The sternal angle is at T4/ T5.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 7

Question
The right lung has the oblique and horizontal fissures.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 8

Question
The left lung only contains the oblique fissure.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 9

Question
Oblique fissure starts posteriorly at T4. It goes from the 4th intercostal space till the 6th costal cartilage.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 10

Question
Horizontal fissure follows along the 6th rib
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 11

Question
Three major alveolar cell types in the alveolar wall: Type I pneumocytes (Pc I) Type II pneumocytes (Pc II) Dust cells Which is the correct pairing of functions?
Answer
  • Pc I: Surfactant production. Pc II: Destroys foreign objects Dust cells: Gas exchange.
  • Pc I: Gas exchange Pc II: Surfactant production Dust cells: Secretes dust–like hormones into the alveoli.
  • Pc I: Gas exchange Pc II: Destroys foreign objects Dust cells: Surfactant production.
  • Pc I: Surfactant production. Pc II: GPc I: Gas exchange. Pc II: Surfactant production. Dust cells: Destroys foreign objects. Pc I: Gas exchange. Pc II: Surfactant production. Dust cells: Destroys foreign objects. as exchange. Dust cells: Secretes dust –like hormones into the alveoli.
  • Pc I: Gas exchange Pc II: Surfactant production Dust cells: Destroys foreign objects.

Question 12

Question
The cells found in the alveolar wall are type [blank_start]I[blank_end] pneumocytes. AKA [blank_start]squamous[blank_end] alveolar cells. Type [blank_start]II[blank_end] pneumocytes secrete pulmonary surfactant to prevent the alveoli from collapsing. AKA [blank_start]great[blank_end] alveolar cells. [blank_start]Macrophages[blank_end] are also called dust cells.
Answer
  • Macrophages
  • II
  • I
  • squamous
  • great

Question 13

Question
Label the parts. (no numbers-- spell everything fully out)
Answer
  • epiglottis
  • hyoid bone
  • thyroid cartilage
  • cricoid cartilage
  • first tracheal cartilage

Question 14

Question
Label parts of the larynx. No numbers/ everything needs to be fully written out.
Answer
  • hyoid bone
  • thyrohyoid membrane
  • thyroid cartilage
  • cricoid cartilage
  • trachea
  • cricothyroid ligament
  • true vocal cords
  • false vocal cords
  • arytenoid cartilage

Question 15

Question
Parts of the Larynx. No numbers.
Answer
  • thyroid cartilage
  • vocal cords
  • cricoid cartilage
  • arythenoid cartilage
  • cricothyroid muscle
  • thyroarythenoid muscle

Question 16

Question
The [blank_start]cricothyroid[blank_end] muscle contracts to rotate the [blank_start]thyroid[blank_end] cartilage forward. Doing so increases the [blank_start]tension[blank_end] on the vocal cords and increases the [blank_start]pitch[blank_end].
Answer
  • cricothyroid
  • thyroid
  • tension
  • pitch

Question 17

Question
[blank_start]Thyroarytenoid[blank_end] muscle relax and [blank_start]shortens[blank_end] the vocal cords, [blank_start]decreasing[blank_end] tension on the vocal cords and [blank_start]decreasing[blank_end] the pitch.
Answer
  • Thyroarytenoid
  • shortens
  • decreasing
  • decreasing

Question 18

Question
[blank_start]Lateral[blank_end] [blank_start]cricoarytenoid[blank_end] muscle [blank_start]adducts[blank_end] the vocal cords and [blank_start]protects[blank_end] the airway.
Answer
  • Lateral
  • cricoarytenoid
  • adducts
  • protects

Question 19

Question
[blank_start]Posterior[blank_end] [blank_start]cricoarytenoid[blank_end] muscle [blank_start]abducts[blank_end] the vocal cords and helps [blank_start]breathing[blank_end] movements of inspiration and expiration.
Answer
  • cricoarytenoid
  • Posterior
  • abducts
  • breathing

Question 20

Question
The cricothyroid muscle increases pitch and is innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 21

Question
The thyroarytenoid decreases the pitch and is innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 22

Question
The posterior cricoarytenoid adducts the vocal cords and is innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 23

Question
The lateral cricoarytenoid muscle adducts the vocal cords and is innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 24

Question
A 65 years old man who was previously diagnosed with lung cancer presents to the ED. He complains that he can’t sweat on the left side of his face. Using his presentation and the image shown below, what is the most likely diagnosis?
Answer
  • Horner’s syndrome

Question 25

Question
What is true regarding Pancoasts tumors?
Answer
  • Apical lung cancer
  • Invades the cervical sympathetic plexus
  • Invades the brachial plexus to give shoulder and arm pain
  • Invades the recurrent laryngeal nerve to give a horse voice
  • small cell lung cancer
  • Bovine cough from vocal cord paralysis.

Question 26

Question
Labels parts of the spirometry test.
Answer
  • tidal volume
  • inspiratory reserve volume
  • expiratory reserve volume
  • residual volume
  • vital capacity
  • functional residual capacity
  • inspiratory capacity
  • total lung capacity

Question 27

Question
Different Lung Function Tests: (Vitalograph has abbreviations)
Answer
  • Total lung capacity
  • Reserve volume
  • Peak Expiratory Flow
  • FEV1
  • FVC

Question 28

Question
What is the max amount of gas that can be forcefully exhaled and as quickly as possible after a maximal inhalation?
Answer
  • FVC
  • FEV1
  • PEV
  • TV

Question 29

Question
This is the volume expired in the first second. It is Affected by how narrowed the airways are.
Answer
  • FEV1
  • FVC
  • PEF
  • TLC

Question 30

Question
Which of these is true regarding obstructive diseases?
Answer
  • ex: cystic fibrosis
  • ex: asthma
  • ex: COPD
  • lower FEV1
  • normal FEV!
  • lower peak flow rate (PEFR)
  • lower total lung capacity
  • increased residual volume
  • pursued lips
  • barrel chest

Question 31

Question
What conditions are these flow charts descriptive of?
Answer
  • normal
  • tracheal stenosis
  • restrictive conditions
  • obstructive conditions

Question 32

Question
What are these vitalographs reflective of?
Answer
  • Obstructive
  • restrictive

Question 33

Question
A 32-year-old woman comes to the ED with a previous month long history of malaise, mild cough, and subjective fevers. She is HIV positive and her last CD4 count taken 6 months prior was 220. She's not on antiretroviral therapy or other medications. Vital signs: HR= 88 beats per minute, BP=130/60 mm Hg, RR = 12 breaths per minute, oxygen sat= 91% on room air. Her chest radiograph shows diffuse, patchy infiltrates bilaterally. Subsequent labs are unremarkable except for an elevated lactate dehydrogenase level. What most likely causing her condition?
Answer
  • Mycoplasma pneumonie
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Legionella pneumonie
  • Hemophilus pneumonie
  • Pneumocystis jiroveci

Question 34

Question
An early middle aged married executive CEO with 2 children complains to her GP complaining of increased tiredness and a lack of interest in her work. She has also been having an upset bowel. Believing she has burnout, what is the best initial management for this patient ?
Answer
  • Prescribe a SSRI
  • Prescribe a SSNI
  • Referral for CBT
  • Sign her off of work as sick
  • Do nothing: will sort itself out

Question 35

Question
Which of these is the presentation of an experience of some type of exhaustion due to prolonged and demanding involvement in situations/something?
Answer
  • Poor concentration
  • Lack of interest
  • Fatigue
  • Depression
  • Short temper
  • Disorganization
  • Anger
  • Denial
  • Resting tremors

Question 36

Question
In the early phase of allergen exposure, what is released by mast cells?
Answer
  • histamine
  • leukotrienes
  • bradykinin
  • prostaglandins
  • platelet activating factor
  • serotonin

Question 37

Question
What is released by eosinophils in late allergy phase?
Answer
  • eosinophilic cationic protease (ECP)
  • eosinophilic perioxidase (EPX)
  • major basic protein (MBP)
  • leukotrienes
  • prostaglandins
  • histamine
  • bradykinin

Question 38

Question
IL-5 is for early phase allergen exposure.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 39

Question
An 18-year-old tall, thin male arrives at ED with acute onset of respiratory distress while sitting at his desk. He had a sharp pain on the right side of his chest that got worse with breathing in. He is otherwise healthy, doesn't do any recreational drugs, and hasn't traveled anywhere recently. Vital Signs: HR of 100 beats per minute, BP 120/60 mm Hg, a RR of 14 breaths per minute, oxygen sats of 97% on room air. During auscultations, you note decreased breath sounds on the right side. Which of the following tests is to be performed next?
Answer
  • ECG
  • Echo
  • Chest X-ray
  • Complete Blood Works
  • CT Scan
  • Anterior abdominal x-ray
  • Toxicological drug screen

Question 40

Question
A 20 year old man complains to the GP of a runny congested nose for the past 3 months with frequent sneezing. Hiis symptoms are worse in the morning and he has no pets. He also has from asthma and eczema. The diagnosis is Perennial rhinitis and you prescribe cetirizine. What is the most likely cause of his condition?
Answer
  • Hay Fever
  • Cats
  • Dust mites
  • Pollen
  • Dogs

Question 41

Question
How to Manage Asthma: 1. [blank_start]Short[blank_end] acting bronchodilator 2. Add [blank_start]inhaled[blank_end] cortico[blank_start]steroids[blank_end] 3. Replace [blank_start]short[blank_end] acting for [blank_start]long[blank_end] acting bronchodilator 4. [blank_start]Increase[blank_end] inhaled steroids dose 5. [blank_start]Oral[blank_end] steroids
Answer
  • Short
  • steroids
  • inhaled
  • short
  • long
  • Increase
  • Oral

Question 42

Question
[blank_start]Pollen[blank_end] is the most common cause of [blank_start]seasonal[blank_end] allergic rhinitis.
Answer
  • Pollen
  • seasonal

Question 43

Question
[blank_start]Dust[blank_end] [blank_start]mites[blank_end] are the most common cause of [blank_start]perennial[blank_end] allergic rhinitis
Answer
  • mites
  • Dust
  • perennial

Question 44

Question
Nick is a 46-year-old builder who has noticed breathlessness which is worse on exertion for roughly the past year. No inhaler seems to be helping. TLC Raised RV Raised PaO2 Reduced PaCO2 Raised (serious) Transfer factor (TLCO/ DLCO): Reduced Based on his lung function tests shown below, what is the underlying condition?
Answer
  • Asthma
  • COPD
  • Pulmonary Fibrosis
  • Pneumothorax

Question 45

Question
Alan is a 50-year-old farmer who has been getting breathless over the last 3 years. At first, the shortness of breath came in episodes lasting a few hours but over the last two years, the problems have been continuous. Reduced FEV1 Reduced FVC Increased forced expiratory ratio Reduced total lung capacity Based on his lung function tests shown below, what is the underlying condition?
Answer
  • Asthma
  • Pulmonary Fibrosis
  • COPD
  • Cystic Fibrosis

Question 46

Question
The [blank_start]internal[blank_end] branch of the [blank_start]superior[blank_end] [blank_start]laryngeal[blank_end] nerve supplies sensation to the larynx and responsible for cough reflex.
Answer
  • internal
  • superior
  • laryngeal

Question 47

Question
The [blank_start]external[blank_end] branch of the [blank_start]superior[blank_end] [blank_start]laryngeal[blank_end] nerve supplies the cricothyroid muscle which controls the [blank_start]pitch[blank_end] of speech.
Answer
  • external
  • superior
  • laryngeal
  • pitch

Question 48

Question
The [blank_start]left[blank_end] recurrent laryngeal nerve loops under the [blank_start]aortic[blank_end] [blank_start]arch[blank_end]. The [blank_start]right[blank_end] recurrent laryngeal loops under the [blank_start]right[blank_end] [blank_start]subclavian[blank_end] [blank_start]artery[blank_end] before traveling upwards
Answer
  • left
  • right
  • aortic
  • arch
  • subclavian
  • artery
  • right

Question 49

Question
The [blank_start]recurrent[blank_end] [blank_start]laryngeal[blank_end] nerve supplies these laryngeal muscles: [blank_start]Thyroarytenoid[blank_end] [blank_start]Lateral[blank_end] and [blank_start]posterior[blank_end] cricoarytenoid muscles
Answer
  • recurrent
  • laryngeal
  • Thyroarytenoid
  • posterior
  • Lateral

Question 50

Question
What is true regarding of restrictive respiratory diseases?
Answer
  • Due to disease in the interstitium of the lungs
  • The lung x-ray will show increased density of the lung tissue.
  • Stiff lungs
  • ex: asthma
  • Reduced FVC
  • Reduced RV
  • Reduced FEV1
  • PEFR slightly decreased
  • Normal FEV1: FVC ratio
  • exs: Pulmonary Fibrosis and Congenital defect

Question 51

Question
Stridor and wheeze are both characteristic of obstructive diseases.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 52

Question
What is true regarding pneumonia?
Answer
  • pleuritic chest pain
  • cough
  • sputum
  • fever
  • malasie
  • tachypnea
  • dull percussion
  • crackles during auscultation
  • chest xray
  • blood and sputum investigation

Question 53

Question
How to manage pneumonia? [blank_start]supportive[blank_end] [blank_start]antibiotics[blank_end] started immediately ex: [blank_start]amoxicillin[blank_end] or tetracycline
Answer
  • supportive
  • antibiotics
  • amoxicillin

Question 54

Question
What types of pneumonic x rays are these
Answer
  • lobar
  • interstitial
  • lobular
  • bronchopneumonia

Question 55

Answer
  • uncommon
  • uncommon
  • uncommon

Question 56

Question
The spirometry test history must include post bronchodilator measurements and the degree of reversibility.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 57

Question
[blank_start]Streptococcus Pneumonia[blank_end] and Haemophilus Influenza are th most common causes of community-acquired Pneumonia. Staph. Aureus is the most common cause of hospital-acquired Pneumonia. Chlamydophila psittaei is the most common cause of pneumonia in bird owners. Klebisella Pneumonia is the most common cause of pneumonia in alcoholics Legionella Pneumonia is the most common cause of pneumonia in those who use air-conditioning. Pneumocystis jiroveci is the most common cause of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients.
Answer
  • Streptococcus Pneumonia
  • Haemophilus Influenza

Question 58

Question
[blank_start]Streptococcus Pneumonia[blank_end] and [blank_start]Haemophilus Influenza[blank_end] are th most common causes of community-acquired Pneumonia. [blank_start]Staph. Aureus[blank_end] is the most common cause of hospital-acquired Pneumonia. [blank_start]Chlamydophila psittaei[blank_end] is the most common cause of pneumonia in bird owners. [blank_start]Klebisella Pneumoni[blank_end]a is the most common cause of pneumonia in alcoholics [blank_start]Legionella Pneumonia[blank_end] is the most common cause of pneumonia in those who use air-conditioning. [blank_start]Pneumocystis jiroveci[blank_end] is the most common cause of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients.
Answer
  • Streptococcus Pneumonia
  • staphylococcus pneumonia
  • Hemophilus Influenza
  • Hemophilus Pyrethica
  • Staph. Aureus
  • Verfitule Aureleus
  • Chlamydophila psittaei
  • Chlamydia pneumonia
  • Klebisella Pneumoni
  • Clostridium Difficile
  • Legionella Pneumonia
  • Pneumonia artificialis
  • Pneumocystis jiroveci
  • HPV
  • HIV
  • Hep C

Question 59

Question
TLCO can be reduced by:
Answer
  • reduction in alveolar - capillary membrane area
  • reduced lung volumes
  • thicker alveoli
  • Anemia due to less hemoglobin
  • increased blood volume (pulmonary)
  • polycythaemia

Question 60

Question
TLCO can be increased by:
Answer
  • polycythemia
  • increased pulmonary blood volume
  • decreased lung volumes
  • thicker alveoli
  • anemia
  • certain drugs

Question 61

Question
How might pneumothorax present?
Answer
  • sudden angina
  • dyspnea
  • tachypnea
  • tachycardia
  • low oxygen sats
  • trachea deviation
  • Affected side moves less
  • No breath sounds in affected area
  • Hyper resonance on percussion
  • sweaty pallor

Question 62

Question
Inserting a needle into the 3rd-5th intercostal space is within the safe triangle
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 63

Question
[blank_start]Primary[blank_end] spontaneous pneumothorax occurs randomly in healthy individuals, especially [blank_start]tall[blank_end] and skinny guys. [blank_start]Secondary[blank_end] spontaneous pneumothorax occurs in individuals with an underlying [blank_start]lung[blank_end] problem, usually it's [blank_start]COPD[blank_end]. [blank_start]Tension[blank_end] Pneumothorax is caused by [blank_start]trauma[blank_end] and is a medical emergency. It's the worst one with most obvious tracheal deviation.
Answer
  • Primary
  • Tension
  • Secondary
  • tall
  • lung
  • COPD
  • trauma
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