Compendium 4

Jessica Bulley
Quiz by Jessica Bulley, updated more than 1 year ago
Jessica Bulley
Created by Jessica Bulley over 3 years ago
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Description

Why do we breathe? HUMB1000

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Functions of the respiratory system: Respiration - • [blank_start]Ventilation[blank_end] – Movement of air in and out of lungs • [blank_start]External respiration[blank_end] - Gas exchange between lungs blood • [blank_start]Transport[blank_end] - of respiratory gases • [blank_start]Internal respiration[blank_end] – Gas exchange between blood tissues
Answer
  • Ventilation
  • External respiration
  • Transport
  • Internal respiration

Question 2

Question
Respiration: • Internal respiration – Movement of air in and out of lungs
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 3

Question
Regulation of blood pH is a function of the respiratory system
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 4

Question
Select the Five main functions of the respiratory system:
Answer
  • Regulation of blood pH
  • Homeostasis
  • Voice production
  • Respiration
  • Waste elimination
  • Smell (olfaction)
  • Protection

Question 5

Question
Divisions of the respiratory system include the upper respiratory tract and the lower respiratory tract
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 6

Question
Select the four anatomical associations with the upper respiratory tract:
Answer
  • External nose
  • Larynx
  • Pharynx
  • Nasal cavity
  • Trachea
  • Bronchi

Question 7

Question
The Trachea is associated with the upper respiratory tract.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 8

Question
Select the Three anatomical associations with the lower respiratory tract
Answer
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchi
  • Lungs
  • Pharynx

Question 9

Question
Respiratory diagram: 1. [blank_start]External nose[blank_end] 2. [blank_start]Nasal Cavity[blank_end] 3. [blank_start]Pharynx (throat)[blank_end] 4. [blank_start]Upper Respiratory[blank_end] 5. [blank_start]Larynx[blank_end] 6. [blank_start]Trachea[blank_end] 7. [blank_start]Lower Respiratory[blank_end] 8. [blank_start]Bronchi[blank_end] 9. [blank_start]Lungs[blank_end]
Answer
  • External nose
  • Nasal Cavity
  • Pharynx (throat)
  • Upper Respiratory
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Lower Respiratory
  • Bronchi
  • Lungs

Question 10

Question
Nasal cavity: • From [blank_start]nostrils[blank_end] (nares) to [blank_start]choana[blank_end] • [blank_start]Vestibule[blank_end] - entry to nasal cavity Stratified squamous epithelium, sweat and sebaceous glands and hair follicles • [blank_start]Hard palate[blank_end] – floor of nasal cavity • [blank_start]Septum[blank_end] – separates nasal cavity into left and right parts, cartilage and bone • [blank_start]Concha[blank_end] – bony “ridges” in nasal cavity
Answer
  • nostrils
  • choana
  • Vestibule
  • Hard palate
  • Septum
  • Concha

Question 11

Question
What are the ridges of the nasal cavity called?
Answer
  • Concha
  • Choana

Question 12

Question
The Concha are the bony ridges in the Nasal cavity.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 13

Question
The Concha are surrounded with Superior, Inferior and middle 'meatus' to increase surface space
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 14

Question
Epithelium of concha (and most of nasal cavity) is:
Answer
  • pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  • stratifed squamous epithelium

Question 15

Question
Select Seven functions of the nasal cavity
Answer
  • • Sound of your voice
  • • Olfaction (or smell)
  • • via moisture from mucous epithelium and excess tears which drain into nasal cavity
  • • Passageway for air
  • • Cleans the air
  • • Humidifies and warms the air
  • • via warm blood flowing through nasal cavity
  • • assist with taste

Question 16

Question
Select the Three areas of the Pharynx:
Answer
  • Nasopharynx
  • Oropharynx
  • Laryngopharynx
  • Trachea

Question 17

Question
Tonsil diagram: 1. [blank_start]Pharyngeal tonsil[blank_end] 2. [blank_start]Palatine tonsil[blank_end] 3. [blank_start]Lingual tonsil[blank_end]
Answer
  • Pharyngeal tonsil
  • Palatine tonsil
  • Lingual tonsil

Question 18

Question
Oropharnyx and Laryngopharnyx both have stratified squamous epithelium
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 19

Question
What are the 6 pairs of cartilage in the larynx
Answer
  • • Arytenoid • Corniculate • Cuneiform
  • • Thyroid (Adam’s apple) • Cricoid • Epiglottis

Question 20

Question
The Three unpaired cartilage in the Larynx are the Thyroid (Adam’s apple), Cricoid, Epiglottis
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 21

Question
Select Four functions of the larynx:
Answer
  • • Trap debris from entering lungs
  • • Sound production via vocal folds
  • • Directs food into the oesophagus away from respiratory tract
  • • Maintains an open passageway for air movement
  • • Provides assistance to Peristalsis of food

Question 22

Question
The Larynx directs food into the oesophagus away from respiratory tract
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 23

Question
The Trachea has 10-25 ‘C-shaped’ hyaline cartilage rings for support
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 24

Question
The Trachea has 15-20 ‘C-shaped’ hyaline cartilage rings for support
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 25

Question
The Trachea descends from the pharynx and sits anterior to oesophagus
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 26

Question
What is the arrow pointing towards?
Answer
  • Trachea
  • Larynx

Question 27

Question
The right lung has 3 lobes
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 28

Question
Lung diagram: 1. [blank_start]Larynx[blank_end] 2. [blank_start]Trachea[blank_end] 3. [blank_start]Carina[blank_end] 4. [blank_start]Visceral Pleura[blank_end] 5. [blank_start]Parietal Pleura[blank_end] 6. [blank_start]Pleural Cavity[blank_end] 7. [blank_start]Main (primary) bonchus[blank_end] 8. [blank_start]Lobar (secondary) bronchus[blank_end] 9. [blank_start]Segmental (tertiary) bronchus[blank_end] 10. [blank_start]Bronchiole[blank_end] 11. [blank_start]To terminal Bronchiole[blank_end] 12. [blank_start]Diaphragm[blank_end]
Answer
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Carina
  • Visceral Pleura
  • Parietal Pleura
  • Pleural Cavity
  • Main (primary) bonchus
  • Lobar (secondary) bronchus
  • Segmental (tertiary) bronchus
  • Bronchiole
  • To terminal Bronchiole
  • Diaphragm

Question 29

Question
Alveoli diagram: 1. [blank_start]Alveoli[blank_end] 2. [blank_start]Alveolar duct (2)[blank_end] 3. [blank_start]Respiratory bronchioles[blank_end] 4. [blank_start]Alveolar duct (3)[blank_end] 5. [blank_start]Terminal bronchiole[blank_end] 6. [blank_start]Alveolar sac[blank_end]
Answer
  • Alveoli
  • Alveolar duct (2)
  • Respiratory bronchioles
  • Alveolar duct (4)
  • Terminal bronchiole
  • Alveolar sac

Question 30

Question
Classify the structures below into whether fall within the ‘conducting zone’ or ‘respiratory zone’? [blank_start]Conducting zone[blank_end]: nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, primary bronchus, secondary bronchus, tertiary bronchus, bronchiole, terminal bronchiole, [blank_start]Respiratory zone[blank_end]: respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct, alveolar sac, alveoli
Answer
  • Conducting zone
  • Respiratory zone

Question 31

Question
Select the structures below which fall into the ‘respiratory zone’?
Answer
  • bronchiole, alveoli
  • tertiary bronchus
  • alveolar duct and sac
  • terminal bronchiole
  • primary and secondary bronchus
  • respiratory bronchiole
  • larynx
  • trachea
  • nasal cavity
  • pharynx

Question 32

Question
Gas transport mechanism: [blank_start]Oxygen (O2)[blank_end] • Transported via: • Red blood cells (haemoglobin) (98.5%) • Dissolved in blood plasma (1.5%) [blank_start]Carbon dioxide (CO2)[blank_end] • Transported as: • HCO3 - dissolved in plasma (70%) • CO2 dissolved in plasma (7%) • Bound to haemoglobin (23%)
Answer
  • Oxygen (O2)
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Question 33

Question
Respiratory Membrane diagram: 1. [blank_start]Alveolar fluid (with surfactant)[blank_end] 2. [blank_start]Alveolar epithelium[blank_end] 3. [blank_start]Basement membrane of alveolar epithelium[blank_end] 4. [blank_start]Interstitial space[blank_end] 5. Basement [blank_start]membrane of capillary endothelium[blank_end] 6. [blank_start]Pulmonary capillary endothelium[blank_end] 7. [blank_start]Diffusion of O2[blank_end] 8. [blank_start]Diffusion of CO2[blank_end] 9. [blank_start]Red blood cell[blank_end]
Answer
  • Alveolar fluid (with surfactant)
  • Alveolar epithelium
  • Basement membrane of alveolar epithelium
  • Interstitial space
  • membrane of capillary endothelium
  • Pulmonary capillary endothelium
  • Diffusion of O2
  • Diffusion of CO2
  • Red blood cell

Question 34

Question
Pulmonary ventilation: [blank_start]Inspiration:[blank_end] • LUNGS: [blank_start]volume increases as it fill with air[blank_end] • DIAPHRAGM: [blank_start]moves inferiorly and flattens[blank_end] • RIB CAGE: elevated • STERNUM: elevated • INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES: [blank_start]contract[blank_end] Expiration: • LUNGS: [blank_start]volume decreases as air leaves[blank_end] • DIAPHRAGM: [blank_start]moves superiorly[blank_end] as it relaxes into its dome-shape • RIB CAGE: depresses • STERNUM: depresses • INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES: [blank_start]relax[blank_end]
Answer
  • Inspiration:
  • volume increases as it fill with air
  • moves inferiorly and flattens
  • contract
  • volume decreases as air leaves
  • moves superiorly
  • relax

Question 35

Question
Airflow in and out of alveoli: • [blank_start]Barometric air pressure (PB)[blank_end] – atmospheric air pressure outside the body • [blank_start]Intra-alveolar pressure (Palv)[blank_end] – pressure inside the alveoli
Answer
  • Barometric air pressure (PB)
  • Intra-alveolar pressure (Palv)

Question 36

Question
• Intrapleural pressure = pressure in the pleural cavity
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 37

Question
Select Two Forces which promote alveoli recoil:
Answer
  • • Surfactant (Fluid which coats alveoli)
  • • Muscle contraction
  • • Fine elastic fibers

Question 38

Question
Pulmonary volumes: • [blank_start]Tidal volume[blank_end] – the amount of air inspired or expired with each breath • [blank_start]Inspiratory reserve volume[blank_end] – the amount of air that can be inspired forcefully after inspiration of the tidal volume • [blank_start]Expiratory reserve volume[blank_end] – the amount of air that can be forcefully expired after expiration of the tidal volume • [blank_start]Residual volume[blank_end] – the volume of air still remaining in the respiratory passages and lungs after the most forceful expiration
Answer
  • Tidal volume
  • Inspiratory reserve volume
  • Expiratory reserve volume
  • Residual volume

Question 39

Question
Pulmonary capacities: • [blank_start]Inspiratory capacity[blank_end] – the amount of air a person can inspire maximally after normal expiration (tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume) • [blank_start]Functional residual capacity[blank_end] – the amount of air remaining in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration (expiratory reserve volume + residual volume) • [blank_start]Vital capacity[blank_end] – the maximum volume of air that can be expelled from the respiratory tract after a maximum inspiration (inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume) • [blank_start]Total lung capacity[blank_end] – inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume +residual volume
Answer
  • Inspiratory capacity
  • Functional residual capacity
  • Vital capacity
  • Total lung capacity

Question 40

Question
• [blank_start]Respiratory rate[blank_end] – number of breaths taken per minute • [blank_start]Minute ventilation[blank_end] – total amount of air moved into and out of the respiratory system each minute (tidal volume X respiratory rate) (E.g. 500 ml X 12 breaths per minute = 6000 ml per minute) • [blank_start]Anatomic dead space[blank_end] – space formed by nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and terminal bronchioles. • [blank_start]Alveolar ventilation[blank_end] - volume of air available for gas exchange per minute
Answer
  • Respiratory rate
  • Minute ventilation
  • Anatomic dead space
  • Alveolar ventilation

Question 41

Question
Parameters measured of dynamic lung function test: • [blank_start]Forced vital capacity (FVC)[blank_end] – maximal volume of air that can be forcefully expired as fast as possible after a deep breath in • Forced [blank_start]expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 sec)[blank_end] – the volume of air expired in the first second of the test • Forced [blank_start]expiratory volume 1% (FEV1%)[blank_end] – FEV1sec expressed as a percentage of the FVC
Answer
  • Forced vital capacity (FVC)
  • expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 sec)
  • expiratory volume 1% (FEV1%)

Question 42

Question
The Nasal cavity, Nasopharynx and Trachea all have [blank_start]pseudostratified ciliated columnar[blank_end] epithelium
Answer
  • pseudostratified ciliated columnar
  • simple squamous epithelium

Question 43

Question
The Vestible is situated [blank_start]anteriorly[blank_end] of the nose in the middle.
Answer
  • anteriorly
  • superiorly

Question 44

Question
The Vestibule, Oropharynx and Laryngopharynx all have [blank_start]stratified squamous epithelium[blank_end]
Answer
  • stratified squamous epithelium
  • pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Question 45

Question
The Alveoli has simple squamous epithelium
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 46

Question
The [blank_start]Oropharynx[blank_end] is the middle part of the throat that includes the base of the tongue, the tonsils, the soft palate, and the walls of the pharynx.
Answer
  • Oropharynx
  • Laryngopharynx

Question 47

Question
The [blank_start]Laryngopharynx[blank_end] is where both food and air pass. It can be found between the hyoid bone and the larynx and esophagus, which helps guide food and air where to go. It is a part of the pharynx.
Answer
  • Laryngopharynx
  • Oropharynx

Question 48

Question
[blank_start]Choana[blank_end]: An opening at the back of the nasal passage (there is a left and a right side) that empties into the space behind the nose called the [blank_start]nasopharynx[blank_end], where the adenoids and eustachian tube are. The passage way continues down into the back of the mouth and into the throat.
Answer
  • Choana
  • Choncha
  • nasopharynx
  • oropharynx

Question 49

Question
Alveolar fluid (surfactant) reduces the surface tension of fluid in the lungs and helps make the small air sacs in the lungs (alveoli) more stable.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 50

Question
[blank_start]Pharynx[blank_end]: the membrane-lined cavity behind the nose and mouth, connecting them to the oesophagus [blank_start]Larynx[blank_end]: the hollow muscular organ forming an air passage to the lungs and holding the vocal cords in humans and other mammals; the voice box.
Answer
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • Larynx
  • Pharynx

Question 51

Question
The [blank_start]Bronchiole[blank_end] descends into the [blank_start]Terminal Bronchiole[blank_end] which then leads onto the [blank_start]Respiratory Bronchiole[blank_end]. From here, oxygen descends through the [blank_start]Alveolar Duct[blank_end], into the [blank_start]Alveolar Sac[blank_end] and eventually into the individual [blank_start]Alveoli[blank_end]
Answer
  • Bronchiole
  • Terminal Bronchiole
  • Terminal Bronchiole
  • Respiratory Bronchiole
  • Respiratory Bronchiole
  • Terminal Bronchiole
  • Alveolar Duct
  • Alveolar Sac
  • Alveolar Sac
  • Alveolar Duct
  • Alveoli
  • Alveolar Sac

Question 52

Question
When you breathe in, air enters your body through your nose or mouth. From there, it travels down your throat through the [blank_start]larynx[blank_end] (or voicebox) and into the [blank_start]trachea (or windpipe)[blank_end] before entering your lungs.
Answer
  • larynx
  • pharynx
  • trachea (or windpipe)
  • oesophagus
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