ADHD and ASD

Jennifer Gay
Quiz by Jennifer Gay, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Jennifer Gay
Created by Jennifer Gay over 1 year ago
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Description

Quiz on ADHD and ASD, created by Jennifer Gay on 03/27/2018.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
ADHD overview of symptoms:
Answer
  • Learning disabilities
  • Persistent, interfering inattention
  • Persistent, interfering hyperactivity
  • or impulsivity
  • behavioral comorbidities
  • childhood onset

Question 2

Question
Autism overview of presentation:
Answer
  • Intellectual disability
  • reciprocal social communication
  • early childhood onset
  • repetitive or restrictive behavior
  • behavioral comorbidities
  • medical comorbidities
  • genetic syndrome

Question 3

Question
What is true about the overlap of ADHD and ASD?
Answer
  • 30-80% of children with ASD also meet criteria for ADHD
  • up to 25% of children with ADHD meet criteria for ASD
  • ASD diagnosis "trumps" ADHD diagnosis
  • Core features may "masquarade" as each other

Question 4

Question
Genetics account for 70-80% of the risk for ADHD.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 5

Question
What genes have been linked to ADHD?
Answer
  • Dopamin transporter gene (DAT)
  • Dopamine D4 (DRD4)
  • Dopamine D5 (DRD5)
  • Dopamine D2 (DRD2)

Question 6

Question
What are possible prenatal etiologies for ADHD?
Answer
  • maternal smoking/ETOH use
  • premature birth
  • total increased pregnancy complications

Question 7

Question
Which of the following are possible post-natal etiologies of ADHD?
Answer
  • Malnutrition
  • Head trauma
  • Brain hypoxia
  • Tumors
  • Infection
  • lead poisoning in preschool years

Question 8

Question
In MRI studieis, children and adolescents with ADHD exhibited [blank_start]delays[blank_end] in cortical maturation, prominent in the [blank_start]prefrontal[blank_end] regions. Approzimately a [blank_start]2-4[blank_end] year delay.
Answer
  • delays
  • prefrontal
  • 2-4

Question 9

Question
Children and adults with ADHD have been found to have larger brain volume.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 10

Question
What has been found with neuroimaging in ADHD?
Answer
  • Lower overall brain volume
  • Lower grey matter density
  • White matter abnormalities
  • Reduced cortical thickness

Question 11

Question
The [blank_start]frontal-limbic[blank_end] (reward) network is responsible for [blank_start]emotional dysregulation[blank_end], [blank_start]motivation[blank_end] deficits, [blank_start]hyperactivity[blank_end]-impulsivity, and proneness to [blank_start]aggression[blank_end].
Answer
  • frontal-limbic
  • emotional dysregulation
  • motivation
  • hyperactivity
  • aggression

Question 12

Question
ASD is more prevalent in males at 4:1
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 13

Question
Which of the following are possible etiologies of ASD?
Answer
  • parental age
  • birth complications
  • prenatal exposures to certain medications, infections
  • immunizations

Question 14

Question
What structural changes have been found in an ASD brain?
Answer
  • early overgrowth and amygdala enlargement
  • early overgrowth and hippocampus enlargement
  • early overgrowth of the PFC

Question 15

Question
What functional changes occur in the ASD brain?
Answer
  • "social brain" and network connectivity
  • neurotransmitter inhibition
  • word finding difficulties

Question 16

Question
Regarding early brain overgrowth in Autism
Answer
  • a retrospective screening strategy measures an infants head before the age of 3
  • a prospective screening strategy scans high risk infants and follows up with those that develop autism
  • there is an abnormal cessation of growth later in childhood

Question 17

Question
What are possible reasons for increased brain volume?
Answer
  • Increased cortical thickness
  • Increased cortical surface area
  • Lots of thinking happening

Question 18

Question
What are cortical minicolumns?
Answer
  • The smallest functional unit of the cortex
  • the things that hold your brain in place
  • the basis for lateral induction

Question 19

Question
The structural changes in ASD are
Answer
  • Higher total brain volume starting between 6 and 12 months old
  • Early overgrowth which appears to be stemming from increased cortical surface area
  • Increased surface area, due to an increased number of radial units and/or wider spacing of cortical minicolumns

Question 20

Question
What structural change are the social deficits in ASD attributed to?
Answer
  • Enlarged amygdala in early childhood
  • increased brain volume
  • increased cortical thickness

Question 21

Question
The reduced neuron and oligodendrocyte count in adults may reflect normalization of size or slower growth trajectory later in life
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 22

Question
Inhibition of amygdala via the vmPFC is diminished in ASD when viewing faces
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 23

Question
What is true about both ADHD and ASD?
Answer
  • Highly heritable
  • Fairly prevalent
  • Early intervention makes no difference in outcome of treatmetn

Question 24

Question
Early intervention in ASD is critical and has led to improved early screening, increasing apparent prevalence
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 25

Question
In ADHD, there are 5 networks that affect
Answer
  • attention
  • executive function
  • hyperactivity
  • language
  • social skills

Question 26

Question
In ASD, surface area changes can be detected in the first year of life, but a diagnosis cannot be made until age 3
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 27

Question
In ASD, there is an abnormal brain response to joint attention
Answer
  • True
  • False
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