Neuroscience of Sleep

Maggie Throckmorton
Quiz by Maggie Throckmorton, updated more than 1 year ago
Maggie Throckmorton
Created by Maggie Throckmorton about 3 years ago
62
1

Description

Quiz on Neuroscience of Sleep, created by Maggie Throckmorton on 03/28/2018.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Sleep is a naturally recurring state characterized by: - reduced or absent [blank_start]consciousness[blank_end] - relatively suspended [blank_start]sensory[blank_end] activity, and - inactivity of nearly all [blank_start]voluntary[blank_end] muscle
Answer
  • consciousness
  • memories
  • sensory
  • neuronal
  • voluntary
  • skeletal

Question 2

Question
Why do we sleep? (select all that apply):
Answer
  • Vital for learning, cognition and memory (memory consolidation
  • Restoration
  • Reorganization of neuronal activity
  • Neurogenesis
  • Instrumental to normal development

Question 3

Question
All animals produce [blank_start]circadian[blank_end] rhythms, internal mechanisms that operate on an approxiamtely [blank_start]24[blank_end] hour cycle of wakefulness and sleep.
Answer
  • circadian
  • dream
  • 24
  • 12

Question 4

Question
Circadian rhythms also regulate (select all that apply):
Answer
  • Weather
  • Frequency of eating and drinking
  • Body Composition
  • Urination
  • Body Temperatue
  • Skin Turgor
  • Secretion of hormones
  • Insulin resistance
  • Sensitivity to drugs

Question 5

Question
T or F. The purpose of the circadian rhythms is to keep our internal workings in phase with the outside world.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 6

Question
A [blank_start]free[blank_end] [blank_start]running[blank_end] rhythm is a rhythm that occurs when no stimuli resets the rhythm.
Answer
  • free
  • running

Question 7

Question
A [blank_start]zeitgeber[blank_end] is a term used to describe any stimulus that resets the circadian rhythms. Examples include [blank_start]light[blank_end], which is the primary one, as well as exercise, noise, meals and temperatue.
Answer
  • zeitgeber
  • light

Question 8

Question
T or F. Rhythms of waking and sleep do not change as a function of age.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 9

Question
See question in the image
Answer
  • alert
  • attentive
  • resting quietly
  • sleeping soundly

Question 10

Question
As we drift in and out of sleep at the start of a typical night’s sleep, we enter a sleep period known as:
Answer
  • REM sleep.
  • NREM sleep
  • Slow wave sleep.
  • Delta sleep.

Question 11

Question
Compared with stages 1 and 2 of the NREM sleep period, in stages 3 and 4:
Answer
  • Sleep is lighter and it is easier to wake the sleeper
  • Theta waves are more common
  • Muscle tone, heart rate, body temperative, and blood pressure all increase
  • Delta waves are more common

Question 12

Question
There is four stage of Non-REM sleep. This stage is also thought of as "[blank_start]deep[blank_end] sleep".
Answer
  • deep
  • early

Question 13

Question
Components of REM sleep include: (select all that apply)
Answer
  • Rapid Eye Movement
  • Irregular heart rate and breathing
  • paradoxical sleep
  • dream state

Question 14

Question
A mix of alpha and theta brain waves is most commonly observed during ________sleep.
Answer
  • REM
  • REM Stage 1
  • NREM Stage 2
  • NREM Stage 3

Question 15

Question
During the night, we typically have how many cycles of NREM (1-4) and REM sleep?
Answer
  • 2-3
  • 5-7
  • 4-5
  • 8-10

Question 16

Question
Which of the following is NOT true of REM sleep?
Answer
  • During the night, REM sleep lengthens in duration
  • During the night REM sleep occurs after an NREM sleep cycle
  • Muscle tone increases during REM sleep
  • REM follows the lightest stages of sleep

Question 17

Question
The length of time to the 1st REM episode (REM latency) is [blank_start]90[blank_end] minutes. (put answer in numeric form).
Answer
  • 90

Question 18

Question
REM latency is usually reduced in patients with: [blank_start]Exhaustion[blank_end] [blank_start]Depression[blank_end] [blank_start]Narcolepsy[blank_end] [blank_start]Sleep apnea[blank_end]
Answer
  • Exhaustion
  • Migraines
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Narcolepsy
  • Cataplexy
  • Sleep apnea
  • Insomnia

Question 19

Question
Studies indicate that most adults need _____ hours of sleep each night
Answer
  • 8-10
  • 7-9
  • 6-8
  • 10-12

Question 20

Question
Match the Stage to the Wave Type: Stage 1: [blank_start]low voltage[blank_end] [blank_start]mixed frequency[blank_end] Stage 2: [blank_start]sleep spindles[blank_end] [blank_start]K complexes[blank_end] Stage 3: [blank_start]mostly slow waves[blank_end] Stage 4: [blank_start]slow waves[blank_end]
Answer
  • low voltage
  • mixed frequency
  • sleep spindles
  • K complexes
  • mostly slow waves
  • slow waves

Question 21

Question
Label the Stages of Sleep from the Drag & Drop Selections (note that some answers may be used twice-for Stage II, Use Stage II answer 1st, Stage 2 answer 2nd and Stage Two answer 3rd, for Stage III-use this form first):
Answer
  • Wakefulness
  • NREM Stage 1
  • NREM Stage II
  • NREM Stage III
  • NREM Stage IV
  • NREM Stage 3
  • NREM Stage 2
  • REM
  • NREM Stage Two

Question 22

Question
Match the characteristic to the type of sleep (NREM or REM): EEG more similar to waking brain [blank_start]REM[blank_end] Lack of prominent eye movement or muscle paralysis [blank_start]NREM[blank_end] Working through past [blank_start]NREM[blank_end] Intense brain activity [blank_start]REM[blank_end] Vivid dreams [blank_start]REM[blank_end] Dreams-thoughts [blank_start]NREM[blank_end] Emotional processing [blank_start]REM[blank_end] Learning [blank_start]NREM[blank_end] Creativity [blank_start]REM[blank_end] Consciousness may be totally obliterated [blank_start]NREM[blank_end] Dreams-hallucinatory [blank_start]REM[blank_end] The brain is active [blank_start]NREM[blank_end] Transitional and slow wave sleep; neurological rest [blank_start]NREM[blank_end] Potential future scenarios [blank_start]REM[blank_end]
Answer
  • REM
  • NREM
  • NREM
  • REM
  • NREM
  • REM
  • REM
  • NREM
  • REM
  • NREM
  • NREM
  • REM
  • REM
  • NREM
  • NREM
  • REM
  • REM
  • NREM
  • NREM
  • REM
  • REM
  • NREM
  • NREM
  • REM
  • NREM
  • REM
  • REM
  • NREM

Question 23

Question
[blank_start]NREM[blank_end] sleep is a restorative function, with slow-rolling eye movements, decreased muscle tone, movement, HR, RR, BP, metabolism and temperature
Answer
  • NREM

Question 24

Question
A sleep researcher is recording details of Elka's sleep patterns in a sleep laboratory. Elka's EEG recording shows that she is currently experiencing low-frequency, high-amplitude DELTA waves. Her EOG shows no sign of activity. The researcher can hear Elka talking, but cannot make out what she is saying. Elka is most likely experiencing:
Answer
  • REM Sleep
  • Muscle paralysis
  • NREM Stage 2 sleep
  • NREM Stage 4 sleep

Question 25

Question
During which stage of sleep will you experience “hypnic jerks” – often associated with the feeling of falling.
Answer
  • Stage 1
  • Stage 2
  • Stage 3
  • Stage 4

Question 26

Question
Match the NREM stages of sleep to their characteristic (some have two answers, and some answers are used twice): Stage 1 [blank_start]Drowsiness[blank_end] Stage 2 [blank_start]Light sleep[blank_end] [blank_start]Sleep spindles occur[blank_end] Stage 3 [blank_start]Delta waves[blank_end], [blank_start]slow wave,[blank_end] [blank_start]moderate-deep sleep[blank_end] Stage 4 Delta waves, slow wave, [blank_start]hardest to awaken from[blank_end]
Answer
  • Drowsiness
  • Light sleep
  • Sleep spindles occur
  • Delta waves
  • slow wave,
  • moderate-deep sleep
  • hardest to awaken from

Question 27

Question
[blank_start]Paradoxical[blank_end] sleep is defined as an active hallucinating brain in a paralyzed body. An active brain, inactive body. This occurs during [blank_start]REM[blank_end] sleep.
Answer
  • Paradoxical
  • REM

Question 28

Question
During REM sleep you will have:
Answer
  • Low frequency, high amplitute EEG
  • High frequency, low aplitute EEG

Question 29

Question
What causes the paralysis of large muscles during REM sleep?
Answer
  • Decreased GABA in pontine reticular formation inhibits lower motor neurons
  • Increased GABA in pontine reticular formation inhibits lower motor neurons
  • Decreased Glutamate in pontine reticular formation inhibits lower motor neurons
  • Increased Glutamate in pontine reticular formation inhibits lower motor neurons

Question 30

Question
T or F. You will have 4-5 episodes of REM sleep per night and they increase in length
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 31

Question
During dreaming, which occurs in REM sleep, there is [blank_start]increased[blank_end] limbic system activity and [blank_start]decreased[blank_end] activity in the PFC>
Answer
  • increased
  • decreased
  • decreased
  • increased

Question 32

Question
Fetal and infant sleep have a _____ proportion of REM sleep.
Answer
  • low
  • high

Question 33

Question
REM sleep is ________ during adult life.
Answer
  • Steady
  • Unsteady

Question 34

Question
REM sleep ______ with old age and the use of antidepressants.
Answer
  • increases
  • decreases

Question 35

Question
Stage 4 sleep has__________waves.
Answer
  • syncjhronized
  • desynchronized

Question 36

Question
REM sleep has ____________waves.
Answer
  • Synchronized
  • Desynchronized

Question 37

Question
Label the EEG Waves
Answer
  • ALPHA
  • BETA
  • THETA
  • DELTA

Question 38

Question
As we get older, the time to fall asleep:
Answer
  • Increases
  • Decreases

Question 39

Question
As we get older, our total sleep time:
Answer
  • Increases
  • Decreases

Question 40

Question
The areas of the brain activated in REM sleep are (see slide 38 in PPT) 1) Anterior Cingulate Cortex 2) [blank_start]Subcallosal cortex[blank_end] 3) Basal forebrain 4) Septal area 5) [blank_start]Hypothalamus[blank_end] 6) [blank_start]Amygdala[blank_end]
Answer
  • Subcallosal cortex
  • Hypothalamus
  • Amygdala

Question 41

Question
T or F. 5HT, ACh, NE, DA and Histamine are active during arousal and quiet during NREM.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 42

Question
T or F. During REM, ACh neurons resume activity and monoamines slow down even further.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 43

Question
The Wake Promoting Neurotransmitter include (match NT to correct area of the brain): [blank_start]ACh[blank_end] - Nuclei in the pons [blank_start]NE[blank_end] - Locus coeruleus [blank_start]5HT[blank_end] - Raphe nuclei [blank_start]DA -[blank_end] Periaqueductal gray matter [blank_start]HIstamine[blank_end] - TMN of the hypothalamus [blank_start]Orexin[blank_end] - Posterior hypothalamus
Answer
  • ACh
  • NE
  • 5HT
  • DA -
  • HIstamine
  • Orexin

Question 44

Question
[blank_start]GABA[blank_end] is the sleep-promoting neurotransmitter-in the VLPO (i.e. the sleep center) it inhibits TMN or wake promoter.
Answer
  • GABA

Question 45

Question
Too tired to turn this into a fancy matching question...so here it is for memorizing pleasure.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 46

Question
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) signals the [blank_start]pineal[blank_end] gland that synthesizes [blank_start]melatonin[blank_end]. The release increases as the environmental light decreases.
Answer
  • pineal
  • melatonin

Question 47

Question
The SCN is synchronized by signals from the retina. Retina signals are activated by inputs from the [blank_start]sun[blank_end].
Answer
  • sun

Question 48

Question
Melatonin is an [blank_start]indolamine[blank_end] and a circadian rhythm regulated hormone.
Answer
  • indolamine
  • cathecolamine

Question 49

Question
T or F. There is substantial evidence showing that melatonin turns off the activity of the SCN suggesting that this is the function that allows individuals to go to sleep.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 50

Question
Put the melatonin fluctuation levels over a 24 hour period in the correct sequential order: [blank_start]1:[blank_end] The pineal gland begins producing melatonin in the evening. [blank_start]2[blank_end]: Melatonin levels peak in the middle of the night 3: Melatonin levels decline to low daytime amounts
Answer
  • 1:
  • 2:
  • 3:
  • 2

Question 51

Question
Which of the following statements is true of sleep deprivation?
Answer
  • Sleep deprivation has no physiological effects
  • Sleep deprivation affects one's abilities to perform cognitive tasks
  • Sleep deprivation is a non-issue in older adults since they sleep less
  • The effects of sleep deprivation disappear only after the individual has slept for the same amount of time they were sleep deprived.

Question 52

Question
Narcolepsy is an irresistible attack of refreshing sleep that occurs daily over at least 3 months, and one must have at least one of the following (selecting all that apply):
Answer
  • Cataplexy
  • Apnea
  • Hypocretin (orexin) deficiency in the CSF level
  • Excess GABA
  • Night terrors
  • Nocturnal sleep polysomnography showing REM sleep latency.

Question 53

Question
Narcolepsy -Major Symptoms (match the term to the correct definition): [blank_start]Cataplexy[blank_end]: Sudden loss of postural tone brought on by emotion, particularly laughter [blank_start]Excessive sleepiness[blank_end]: No relieved by adequate amounts of sleep; persistent throughout the day [blank_start]Sleep paralysis[blank_end]: Occurs at the onset of sleep or upon awakening [blank_start]Hypnagogic/hypnopompic[blank_end]: Dream imagery occurring at the onset or end of sleep.
Answer
  • Cataplexy
  • Excessive sleepiness
  • Sleep paralysis
  • Hypnagogic/hypnopompic

Question 54

Question
The onset of narcolepsy is usually before _____ years of age.
Answer
  • 20
  • 10
  • 40
  • 30

Question 55

Question
Type [blank_start]I[blank_end] Narcolepsy is caused by hypocretin (orexin) deficiency and almost always accompanied by cataplexy.
Answer
  • I
  • II

Question 56

Question
The following are true in the neuroscience of narcolepsy (select all that apply):
Answer
  • Frequent REM sleep attacks during the day
  • SKIPS NREM
  • VLPO, the sleep switch in the brain induces sleep by putting brakes on GABA on arousal nuclei
  • Decreased orexin, wake-promoting neurons, in the hypothalamus.

Question 57

Question
Which medication will patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea have a poor response to?
Answer
  • Venlafaxine
  • Cymbalta
  • Viibyrd
  • Zoloft

Question 58

Question
T or F. Patients with a sleepwalking disorder (NREM) have amenisia for the episode.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 59

Question
T or F. Snoozing with booze in your system makes you miss a key part of the sleep cycle known as REM.
Answer
  • True
  • False
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