Chapters 1 and 2

Lauralee Johnson
Quiz by , created about 5 years ago

BIO 400 Azusa Pacific University

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Lauralee Johnson
Created by Lauralee Johnson about 5 years ago
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Question 1

Question
Which of the following is NOT a key characteristic of science?
Answer
  • Science focuses on explaining the natural world.
  • Science is based on the premise that things and events that happen occur in consistent patterns that are comprehensible through careful systematic study
  • Science can usefully examine and prove beliefs such as the existence of supernatural powers or beings.
  • Science is a process for producing knowledge which may be abandoned or modified in light of new evidence or reconceptualization of prior evidence and knowledge
  • C and D

Question 2

Question
Science has certain characteristics, often referred to as __________________, that distinguish it from other ways of knowing and scientists are expected to apply certain ___________________ as they work.
Answer
  • theories/facts
  • the nature of science/habits of mind
  • scientific literacy/scientific processes
  • inquiry/ethics
  • technology/scientific understanding

Question 3

Question
According to the authors, which of the following is a reason science should be taught in elementary and middle school?
Answer
  • Science provides opportunities for children to develop math and language skills.
  • Science knowledge can be useful for all citizens in personal decision making and participation in civic and cultural affairs
  • Science experiences from the earliest grades are essential for helping children learn to think and understand.
  • The No Child Left Behind Act recognizes the importance of science instruction in elementary school.
  • All of the above.

Question 4

Question
It is reasonable to consider an activity “science” if it exhibits which of the following characteristics?
Answer
  • It focuses on explaining the natural world.
  • It relies on evidence
  • It involves testable ideas.
  • It utilizes scientific behaviors
  • All the above.

Question 5

Question
The goal of science is
Answer
  • the same as the goal of technology.
  • to construct theories to explain or understand the natural world.
  • to make modifications in the world to meet human needs
  • to encourage Congress to pass legislation making the teaching of science in elementary and middle school mandatory for all states.
  • A and C

Question 6

Question
Which of the following is part of the scientific approach to understanding the world?
Answer
  • Questioning, investigating, and observing what happens.
  • Trying to make sense of observations.
  • Using new knowledge to make predictions
  • Testing our predictions to see if our understanding is correct.
  • All of the above.

Question 7

Question
Responding to growing concerns about the quality of education (including science education) for all students in our nation, Congress
Answer
  • published Science for All Americans in1989
  • developed Benchmarks for Science Literacy: Project 2061 in 1993
  • created the National Science Education Standards in 1997.
  • passed the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act in 2001
  • published Rising Above the Gathering Storm in 2006

Question 8

Question
The Benchmarks for Science Literacy and the National Science Education Standards generally agree that there are four main themes that should be emphasized in elementary and middle school science. Which of the following is not one of them?
Answer
  • Scientific inquiry
  • Scientific knowledge
  • Attitudes and values that characterize science
  • Scientific ideas are unchanging
  • Science, technology, and society

Question 9

Question
When new evidence is found that does not support a theory, scientists should:
Answer
  • maintain their support for the theory
  • doubt the validity of the new evidence.
  • be willing to modify or let go of old ideas
  • assume that the universe has patterns, order and organization.
  • All of the above

Question 10

Question
An explanation of some aspect of the natural world that has undergone considerable testing and refinement is a
Answer
  • fact.
  • concept.
  • principle.
  • theory.
  • model.

Question 11

Question
The Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP, 2008) specifies content to be assessed by describing key facts, concepts, Principles, laws, and theories in three broad scientific disciplines:
Answer
  • earth/space, zoology, and forces & motion
  • biology, geology, and chemistry.
  • physical, life, and earth/space.
  • meteorology, astronomy, and botany
  • none of the above

Question 12

Question
In examining the state of science education in elementary and middle schools in our nation, the National Research Council (NRC) panel in their report: Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K—8:
Answer
  • critiqued and evaluated the standards movement
  • made recommendations about science education for the future
  • reviewed contemporary studies from psychologists and educators about how children developed understanding in science.
  • All of the above
  • A and B only

Question 13

Question
Based on their examination, the NRC panel issued a call to
Answer
  • increase the K—12 science content taught and to emphasize the importance of knowing many facts in order to accumulate knowledge.
  • reduce the K—12 science content taught and to emphasize fewer well-chosen core concepts to focus more on understanding

Question 14

Question
Which of the following is NOT necessarily a characteristic of students who are proficient in science:
Answer
  • Can repair or program a computer.
  • Know, use, and interpret scientific information
  • Generate and evaluate scientific evidence, and explanations.
  • Understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge
  • Participate productively in scientific practices and discourse

Question 15

Question
Your role as a teacher of science is
Answer
  • to meet with students’ parents to find the root of their child’s misconceptions of the natural world.
  • to be the sage on the stage and lead your students down the narrow path of knowledge.
  • to help learners develop progressively more sophisticated explanations of natural phenomena over time

Question 16

Question
The number of disciplinary core ideas in the framework
Answer
  • is numerous in order to assure coverage of the plethora of ideas in science.
  • is limited in order to avoid superficial coverage of too many disconnected topics.
  • allows for time to develop deeper investigations and understanding of important concepts.
  • A & C
  • B & C

Question 17

Question
The goal of engineering is to
Answer
  • study the natural world
  • study the supernatural world
  • design solutions to address human needs or desires.
  • keep scientists out of the picture.
  • All the above.

Question 18

Question
It’s often easier to learn when you have
Answer
  • an interest in the topic or skill to be learned
  • some familiarity with the topic or skill to be learned
  • excitement about the topic or skill you are learning.
  • all of the above.
  • A & B only

Question 19

Question
The opportunity to learn about science and engineering should
Answer
  • be reserved for rural students as opposed to urban/suburban students because they have had more extensive, on-going experience with plants and animals.
  • be reserved for students in the top ten percent of their class because they have proven themselves to be high achievers.
  • be reserved for students from high income families because the parents can better provide their children with opportunities to further their education beyond 12th grade.
  • not be reserved for a privileged few.

Question 20

Question
The framework committee recommended that K—12 science education in the United States should be organized around three unified dimensions. Those dimensions are:
Answer
  • physical science, earth/space science, and life science.
  • inquiry-based learning, direct instruction, and discovery learning
  • scientific and engineering practices, cross-cutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas.
  • process skills, the 5-E lesson plan, and investigations.

Question 21

Question
Models are representations of objects and interactions in a physical system. Models enable investigators to study phenomena that are difficult to study in the natural world. They can include
Answer
  • physical models such as model airplanes
  • mathematical models such as an equation
  • propositional models such as rules for how things interact
  • All of the above.

Question 22

Question
In the Next Generation Science Standards, the second dimension of the framework is composed of big ideas, known as “crosscutting concepts” that are relevant across all science disciplines and engineering fields. They are reminiscent of:
Answer
  • the “common themes” identified by Science for All Americans (AAAS, 1989).
  • the “common themes” identified by Project 2061: Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993).
  • the “unifying concepts and processes” presented in the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996).
  • All of the above.
  • A & B only.

Question 23

Question
The NGSS (Next Generation Science Standards) are
Answer
  • Mandated by the federal government
  • Curriculum
  • Student performance expectations
  • All of the above
  • A & B

Question 24

Question
The National Academies of Science report, Rising Above the Gathering Storm (2006) stated that our global leadership position in science and technology is changing. Indicator/s of this is/are:
Answer
  • The United States has become a net importer of high-technology products.
  • Other nations are graduating considerably more engineers, computer scientists, and information technologists than the United States.
  • U. S. companies are locating factories in and outsourcing jobs to foreign countries due to lower labor costs and availability of highly trained scientists and engineers.
  • U.S. K—12 students lag behind students from other countries on international assessments in math and science.
  • All the above.

Question 25

Question
During the 1960’s science educators
Answer
  • identified a set of discrete skills called science process skill
  • thought children should memorize facts.
  • stated that science is best learned by doing science.
  • felt that children should learn processes.
  • A, C, & D.

Question 26

Question
Which of the following is NOT a reason why teacher candidates should know and understand the science process skills?
Answer
  • There is no single accepted list of science process skills.
  • They appear in many current state frameworks of science standards.
  • Teacher candidates’ understanding of them is assessed on many certification exams.
  • They are useful tools for accomplishing inquiry tasks during the practice of science.
  • None of the above.

Question 27

Question
If you plan to emphasize the science process skills, which of the following approaches would you use?
Answer
  • Teach for scientific and technological conceptual understanding.
  • Encourage students to explore and investigate to find answers to their questions.
  • Select an area of science and develop it from its historical roots up to the present
  • Select an elementary or middle school textbook and use it to develop your curriculum

Question 28

Question
Observing
Answer
  • Record observations, measurements, inferences, experiments, conclusions, etc., and present them to others.
  • Make a forecast of a possible outcome based on known patterns in data.
  • Draw a tentative conclusion about observations based on observations and prior knowledge.
  • Gather information using all appropriate senses and instruments that extend the senses.
  • Quantify variables using appropriate instruments and units (standard or nonstandard).
  • Investigate by deliberately manipulating one variable at a time and observing the effect on a responding variable while holding all other variables constant.
  • Group objects or organisms according to one or more common properties.
  • Make a statement to guide an investigation of a question.

Question 29

Question
Measuring
Answer
  • Record observations, measurements, inferences, experiments, conclusions, etc., and present them to others.
  • Make a forecast of a possible outcome based on known patterns in data.
  • Draw a tentative conclusion about observations based on observations and prior knowledge.
  • Gather information using all appropriate senses and instruments that extend the senses.
  • Quantify variables using appropriate instruments and units (standard or nonstandard).
  • Investigate by deliberately manipulating one variable at a time and observing the effect on a responding variable while holding all other variables constant.
  • Group objects or organisms according to one or more common properties.
  • Make a statement to guide an investigation of a question

Question 30

Question
Classifying
Answer
  • Record observations, measurements, inferences, experiments, conclusions, etc., and present them to others.
  • Make a forecast of a possible outcome based on known patterns in data.
  • Draw a tentative conclusion about observations based on observations and prior knowledge.
  • Gather information using all appropriate senses and instruments that extend the senses.
  • Quantify variables using appropriate instruments and units (standard or nonstandard).
  • Investigate by deliberately manipulating one variable at a time and observing the effect on a responding variable while holding all other variables constant.
  • Group objects or organisms according to one or more common properties.
  • Make a statement to guide an investigation of a question.

Question 31

Question
Inferring
Answer
  • Record observations, measurements, inferences, experiments, conclusions, etc., and present them to others.
  • Make a forecast of a possible outcome based on known patterns in data
  • Draw a tentative conclusion about observations based on observations and prior knowledge.
  • Gather information using all appropriate senses and instruments that extend the senses.
  • Quantify variables using appropriate instruments and units (standard or nonstandard).
  • Investigate by deliberately manipulating one variable at a time and observing the effect on a responding variable while holding all other variables constant.
  • Group objects or organisms according to one or more common properties.
  • Make a statement to guide an investigation of a question.

Question 32

Question
Hypothesizing
Answer
  • Record observations, measurements, inferences, experiments, conclusions, etc., and present them to others.
  • Make a forecast of a possible outcome based on known patterns in data.
  • Draw a tentative conclusion about observations based on observations and prior knowledge.
  • Gather information using all appropriate senses and instruments that extend the senses.
  • Quantify variables using appropriate instruments and units (standard or nonstandard).
  • Investigate by deliberately manipulating one variable at a time and observing the effect on a responding variable while holding all other variables constant.
  • Group objects or organisms according to one or more common properties.
  • Make a statement to guide an investigation of a question

Question 33

Question
Communicating
Answer
  • Record observations, measurements, inferences, experiments, conclusions, etc., and present them to others
  • Make a forecast of a possible outcome based on known patterns in data.
  • Draw a tentative conclusion about observations based on observations and prior knowledge.
  • Gather information using all appropriate senses and instruments that extend the senses.
  • Quantify variables using appropriate instruments and units (standard or nonstandard).
  • Investigate by deliberately manipulating one variable at a time and observing the effect on a responding variable while holding all other variables constant.
  • Group objects or organisms according to one or more common properties.
  • Make a statement to guide an investigation of a question.

Question 34

Question
Predicting
Answer
  • Record observations, measurements, inferences, experiments, conclusions, etc., and present them to others.
  • Make a forecast of a possible outcome based on known patterns in data.
  • Draw a tentative conclusion about observations based on observations and prior knowledge.
  • Gather information using all appropriate senses and instruments that extend the senses.
  • Quantify variables using appropriate instruments and units (standard or nonstandard).
  • Investigate by deliberately manipulating one variable at a time and observing the effect on a responding variable while holding all other variables constant
  • Group objects or organisms according to one or more common properties
  • Make a statement to guide an investigation of a question.

Question 35

Question
Experimenting
Answer
  • Record observations, measurements, inferences, experiments, conclusions, etc., and present them to others.
  • Make a forecast of a possible outcome based on known patterns in data.
  • Draw a tentative conclusion about observations based on observations and prior knowledge.
  • Gather information using all appropriate senses and instruments that extend the senses.
  • Quantify variables using appropriate instruments and units (standard or nonstandard).
  • Investigate by deliberately manipulating one variable at a time and observing the effect on a responding variable while holding all other variables constant.
  • Group objects or organisms according to one or more common properties.
  • Make a statement to guide an investigation of a question

Question 36

Question
Observations are either _________________________ or __________________________.
Answer
  • fact/opinion
  • concepts/theories
  • qualitative/quantitative
  • inferences/predictions
  • All of the above.

Question 37

Question
The difference between a guess and a prediction about the likelihood of a future event is the presence of
Answer
  • opportunity.
  • authority.
  • prior knowledge of patterns.
  • self-confidence.
  • all of the above.

Question 38

Question
Children are most likely to use a combination of science processes when they use the process of
Answer
  • measuring
  • experimenting
  • inferring
  • communicating

Question 39

Question
“The leaf was green and had jagged edges.” This statement is an example of
Answer
  • a qualitative observation
  • an interpretive inference
  • a hypothesis
  • a prediction
  • a quantitative observation

Question 40

Question
A fourth grade class was studying the stretch of a rubber band when weights were added. The children added weights to the paper clip attached to the rubber band and measured the stretch of the rubber band using a ruler. Which correctly identifies the manipulated and responding variables in this investigation?
Answer
  • Manipulated: ruler Responding: amount of weight added
  • Manipulated: width of rubber band Responding: stretch of rubber band
  • Manipulated: rubber band Responding: ruler
  • Manipulated: the amount of weight added Responding: the stretch of the rubber band
  • Manipulated: the stretch of the rubber band Responding; the width of the rubber band

Question 41

Question
A fourth grade class was studying the stretch of a rubber band when weights were added. The children added weights to the paper clip attached to the rubber band and measured the stretch of the rubber band using a ruler. Which type of investigation is the one described above?
Answer
  • Descriptive
  • Classificatory
  • Experimental
  • Model
  • None of the above.

Question 42

Question
A fourth grade class was studying the stretch of a rubber band when weights were added. The children added weights to the paper clip attached to the rubber band and measured the stretch of the rubber band using a ruler. What would be an appropriate hypothesis to guide the students’ investigation described above?
Answer
  • The thicker the rubber band, the less it will stretch when weights are added.
  • The greater the added weight, the greater the stretch of the rubber band.
  • The color of the rubber band determines how much it will stretch.
  • Rubber bands break when too much weight is added.

Question 43

Question
Students collected the following data in their rubber band investigation. Mass of weights Added Total Stretch 0 g 0 cm 30 g 4 cm 60 g 8 cm 120 g 16 cm Based on the data, what would be a reasonable prediction for the total stretch when 90 grams was added?
Answer
  • 3 cm
  • 6 cm
  • 12 cm
  • 20 cm

Question 44

Question
Students collected the following data in their rubber band investigation. Mass of weights Added Total Stretch 0 g 0 cm 30 g 4 cm 60 g 8 cm 120 g 16 cm Which of the following best describes the prediction of the total stretch when 90 grams was added?
Answer
  • It is an interpolation.
  • It is an extrapolation.
  • It is a guess.
  • It is an inference.

Question 45

Question
Students collected the following data in their rubber band investigation. Mass of weights Added Total Stretch 0 g 0 cm 30 g 4 cm 60 g 8 cm 120 g 16 cm Based on the data, what would be a reasonable prediction for the total stretch when 150 grams was added?
Answer
  • 3 cm
  • 6.cm
  • 12 cm
  • 20 cm

Question 46

Question
Students collected the following data in their rubber band investigation. Mass of weights Added Total Stretch 0 g 0 cm 30 g 4 cm 60 g 8 cm 120 g 16 cm Which of the following best describes the prediction of the total stretch when 150 grams was added?
Answer
  • It is an interpolation
  • It is an extrapolation
  • It is a guess.
  • It is an inference.

Question 47

Question
According to authors Contant, Bass, and Carin, science process skills
Answer
  • should be reserved for secondary science classes
  • should be treated as tools to be used in scientific inquiry.
  • should be taught in isolation in the absence of science content
  • are very different from the problem solving skills presented in other subject areas

Question 48

Question
You want to find out the effect of mass on the distance a toy truck will travel when it rolls down a ramp. Which of the following variables should be controlled in order to have a fair test?
Answer
  • Angle of the ramp
  • Release position of the truck
  • Surface the truck rolls on after it leaves the ramp
  • Whether or not the truck’s doors are open or closed
  • All of the above

Question 49

Question
The bread became moldy because it was damp. This statement is an example of:
Answer
  • an observation.
  • an inference.
  • a prediction.
  • a hypothesis.
  • None of these

Question 50

Question
Another name for the manipulated variable is the:
Answer
  • control variable.
  • dependent variable.
  • independent variable.
  • responding variable.

Question 51

Question
Bar Graphs
Answer
  • Displays the number of times an event occurs in a large set.
  • Shows numerical data about variables that are related and continuous.
  • Shows differences in data collected.

Question 52

Question
Histograms
Answer
  • Displays the number of times an event occurs in a large set.
  • Shows numerical data about variables that are related and continuous.
  • Shows differences in data collected.

Question 53

Question
Line Graphs
Answer
  • Displays the number of times an event occurs in a large set.
  • Shows numerical data about variables that are related and continuous.
  • Shows differences in data collected.

Question 54

Question
Which investigation would you employ to answer the following focus question? “What different shapesof leaves grow on a sassafras tree”?
Answer
  • Descriptive Investigation
  • Classificatory Investigation
  • Experimental Investigation
  • Modeling Investigation
  • None of the above.