In the primary stage of the menstrual cycle, which pituitary hormone is responsible for stimulating ovarian follicle development?
A surge of which pituitary hormone triggers ovulation?
The [blank_start]Corpus Luteum[blank_end] is a hormone-secreting structure that develops in an ovary after an ovum has been discharged but degenerates after a few days unless pregnancy has begun.
The corpus luteum secretes [blank_start]progesterone[blank_end], which is a steroid hormone responsible for the development of the endometrium
The average menstrual cycle last [blank_start]28[blank_end] days
Breakdown of the corpus luteum (luteolysis) typically occurs [blank_start]14 days[blank_end] post ovulation
Stages of the menstrual cycle:
[blank_start]Follicular phase[blank_end] = FSH stimulates follicle development. Raising oestrogen levels inhibit FSH production, therefore all follicles other than the dominant follicle die
[blank_start]Ovulation[blank_end] = Release of oocyte from ruptured dominant follicle
[blank_start]Luteal Phase[blank_end] = Formation of corpus luteum
During menstruation, arteriolar constriction brings above shedding of the functional layer of the [blank_start]endometrium[blank_end]
Whilst the average menstrual cycle is 4 weeks long (28 days), a normal menstrual cycle is considered anything between [blank_start]3[blank_end] and [blank_start]5[blank_end] weeks in frequency.
The passing of clots is a normal finding for a woman undergoing menstruation.
Menstrual bleeding should be light - there should not be in excess of [blank_start]80[blank_end]ml passed.
Menorrhagia: [blank_start]Prolonged and increased menstrual flow[blank_end]
Metrorrhagia: [blank_start]Regular intermenstrual bleeding[blank_end]
Polymenorrhoea: [blank_start]Periods occurring at < 21 day interval[blank_end]
Amenorrhoea: [blank_start]Absence of menstruation > 6 months[blank_end]
Oligomenorrhoea: [blank_start]Periods at intervals of > 35 days[blank_end]
Periods at intervals of > 35 days
Absence of menstruation > 6 months
Periods occurring at < 21 day interval
Prolonged and increased menstrual flow
Regular intermenstrual bleeding
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is typically caused by which organism?
Chlamydia infection typically affects which structure?
Which layer of the uterus is most prone to development of carcinomas?
A woman presents to her GP complaining of heavy, painful periods. She describes that she has recently found sex painful. After referral to Ninewells and the relevant investigations have been conducted, she is diagnosed with benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus.
This is known clinically as ...
Which condition can be described as the following:
"an often painful disorder in which tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus grows outside of your uterus, most commonly in your ovaries, fallopian tubes and the tissue lining your pelvis.
[blank_start]Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding[blank_end] is a condition affecting 50% of women with abnormal uterine bleeding. This diagnosis is made by exclusion and is also known as non-organic menorrhagia.
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding
Endometrial Carcinomas typically affect women who are [blank_start]post[blank_end]-menopausal - the peak age of incidence being around [blank_start]60[blank_end] years old
Most cases of Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding are ...
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding:
Tends to present with an [blank_start]irregular[blank_end] cycle of menorrhagia
More common in [blank_start]obese[blank_end] women
Ovulatory Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (the less common type) is thought to be caused by an inadequate production of [blank_start]progesterone[blank_end] by the corpus luteum.
The thicker a woman's endometrium, the more likely she is to develop endometrial carcinoma.
Investigations of Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding may require imaging of the uterus. Where Ultrasound scans are not enough, a scope can be inserted into the vagina and into the uterus in order to view its contents.
This procedure is called [blank_start]Hysteroscopy[blank_end]
Which of the following are the two main treatments for Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding?
Progestogens (Synthetic Progesterone)
Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill
Capillary Wall Stabilisers
Patients that fail on [blank_start]2[blank_end] medical therapies for Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding are typically then given a progestogen-releasing intrauterine device in the form of a coil.
If medical treatments fail for Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding, surgical treatment in the form of endometrial [blank_start]ablation[blank_end] should be attempted. If this is unsuccessful, surgical removal of the uterus (called a [blank_start]hysterectomy[blank_end]) should be considered.
A sub-total hysterectomy involves removal of the uterus but preservation of the [blank_start]cervix[blank_end].