Synaptic Plasticity

Lukas Paulun
Quiz by Lukas Paulun, updated more than 1 year ago
Lukas Paulun
Created by Lukas Paulun over 2 years ago
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Description

Master Neuroscience (From Membrane to Brain [Lecture]) Quiz on Synaptic Plasticity, created by Lukas Paulun on 11/18/2018.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
The only way to modify the communication between two neurons is to enhance or reduce the response of the [blank_start]post[blank_end]synaptic neuron.
Answer
  • post

Question 2

Question
Habituation saves [blank_start]energy[blank_end].
Answer
  • energy

Question 3

Question
Short-term changes are driven by [blank_start]passive[blank_end] processes, long-term changes are driven by [blank_start]active[blank_end] processes.
Answer
  • passive
  • active

Question 4

Question
The gill-withdrawal reflex in aplysia can be sensitized (potentiated) when tail and mantle shelf are stimulated
Answer
  • together
  • separately

Question 5

Question
Short term potentiation in aplysia An action potential arrives through the sensory neuron and [blank_start]Ca2+[blank_end] influx leads to transmitter release into the synaptic cleft. Neurotransmitters from the interneuron lead to the release of [blank_start]Protein kinase A[blank_end] (PKA) within the presynaptic sensory neuron. PKA does three things: (a) K+ channels are [blank_start]inhibited[blank_end] and the AP stays longer (b) Synaptic vesicles are [blank_start]phosphorelated[blank_end] (c) The [blank_start]exocytosis[blank_end] of the synaptic vesicles is sensitized. Additionally, [blank_start]calmodulin[blank_end] reacts on Ca2+ and amplifies the whole mehanism.
Answer
  • Ca2+
  • K+
  • Cl-
  • Na+
  • Protein kinase A
  • Protein katalysator A
  • Probiotic kinase A
  • inhibited
  • excited
  • phosphorelated
  • sulfinated
  • oxidized
  • exocytosis
  • endocytosis
  • calmodulin
  • calcirax
  • calman

Question 6

Question
Long-term potentiation in aplysia (1) [blank_start]PKA[blank_end] activates genes in nucles (2) [blank_start]Ubiquitin hydrolase[blank_end] makes PKA more stable (3) [blank_start]New synaptic connections are grown[blank_end] The facilitating interneuon does not depolarize the sensory neuron! It only modulates!
Answer
  • PKA
  • PKB
  • AKB
  • Ubiquitin hydrolase
  • Ubiquitin oxygenase
  • New synaptic connections are grown
  • Interneuron connects to motor neuron
  • More transmitters are produced

Question 7

Question
The molecular learning processes in aplysia involve [blank_start]only presynaptic[blank_end] mechanisms.
Answer
  • only presynaptic
  • presynaptic and postsynaptic
  • only postsynaptic

Question 8

Question
In the hippocampus neurons from the dentate region [blank_start]induce[blank_end] LTP. This happens via the [blank_start]mossy fiber pathway[blank_end] (dentate region to CA3). Neurons from the other hemisphere [blank_start]do not induce[blank_end] LTP. Their signals travel via the [blank_start]commissural pathway[blank_end].
Answer
  • induce
  • do not induce
  • mossy fiber pathway
  • Schaffer collateral pathway
  • perforant fiber pathway
  • commissural pathway
  • do not induce
  • induce
  • commissural pathway
  • mossy fiber pathway
  • perforant fiber pathway
  • Schaffer collateral pathway

Question 9

Question
During LTP there is also a feedback signal to the presynaptic cell. One example is [blank_start]NO[blank_end], which [blank_start]diffuses[blank_end] to the presynaptic cell.
Answer
  • NO
  • NO2
  • CO2
  • CO
  • diffuses
  • is transported

Question 10

Question
The mechanism for long-term potentiation
Answer
  • can happen after one signal
  • needs multiple signals to be activated

Question 11

Question
Early phase of long-term potentiation: During normal, low-frequency synaptic transmission Na+ and K+ flow only through [blank_start]AMPA[blank_end] receptors. During a high or repeated depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane the [blank_start]Mg2+[blank_end] blockade of the [blank_start]NMDA[blank_end] receptors is released and K+, Na+ and Ca2+ flow through these channels. This leads to an electric-independent [blank_start]Ca2+[blank_end] signal.
Answer
  • AMPA
  • NMDA
  • Mg2+
  • K+
  • Ca2+
  • NMDA
  • AMPA
  • Ca2+
  • Mg2+
  • K+

Question 12

Question
During the late phase of LTP
Answer
  • the number of synapses increases.
  • there are less transmission failures between the synapses.
  • the increase of synapses can be measured, because we know that each synapse transmits a signal of 4 pA.
  • the increase of synapses can be measured, because we know that each synapse transmits a signal of 8 pA.
  • the number synapses decreases

Question 13

Question
The discusses model of early and late LTP is holds for CA3 and CA1 neurons and therefore for the
Answer
  • Schaffer collateral pathway
  • mossy fiber pathway
  • perforant pathway

Question 14

Question
The importance of NMDA receptors for LTP can be seen in a behavioral experiment with knockout-mice.
Answer
  • The mutants learn but are slower.
  • The mutants do not learn.
  • After a few days the mutants do not remember.
  • After a few hours the mutants do not remember.

Question 15

Question
A receptor critically involved in LTP is [blank_start]NMDA[blank_end].
Answer
  • NMDA

Question 16

Question
The early phase of LTP makes use of [blank_start]cGMP[blank_end]. It is [blank_start]short[blank_end]-lasting and [blank_start]does not require[blank_end] protein synthesis. The late phase of LTP makes use of [blank_start]cAMP[blank_end]. It is [blank_start]long[blank_end]-lasting and [blank_start]requires[blank_end] protein synthesis.
Answer
  • does not require
  • require
  • cGMP
  • cAMP
  • AMPA
  • cAMP
  • cGMP
  • NMDA
  • short
  • long
  • long
  • short
  • requires
  • does not require

Question 17

Question
Since there are so many different neuronal phenotypes that all serve different purposes, the [blank_start]morphology[blank_end] of a neuron is very important when it comes to STP and LTP.
Answer
  • morphology

Question 18

Question
While the dendrites of neurons are [blank_start]relatively stable[blank_end], filopodia are [blank_start]dynamic[blank_end] and can extend and retract. After a contact to [blank_start]a neighbouring axon[blank_end], the filopodium [blank_start]becomes a dendritic spine[blank_end]. The process of filopodia growth is triggered by electrical activity and the activation of [blank_start]NMDA[blank_end] receptors.
Answer
  • relatively stable
  • very flexible
  • dynamic
  • fixed
  • a neighbouring axon
  • another dendrite
  • a synapse
  • becomes a dendritic spine
  • retracts
  • NMDA
  • AMPA

Question 19

Question
Overexpression of [blank_start]SynCAM (synaptic cell adhesion molecule)[blank_end] in [blank_start]HEK (human embryonic kidney)[blank_end] cells leads to expression of synapses.
Answer
  • SynCAM (synaptic cell adhesion molecule)
  • glutamate
  • cGMP
  • HEK (human embryonic kidney)
  • E.coli
  • Straphylococcus

Question 20

Question
The more mature the neuron, the [blank_start]better[blank_end] the LTP. The more mature the neuron, the [blank_start]less dense[blank_end] are its protrusions (filopodia).
Answer
  • better
  • worse
  • less dense
  • denser

Question 21

Question
Molecules like SynCAM that initiate intracellular synaptogenesis programs are called [blank_start]extracellular recognition molecules[blank_end].
Answer
  • extracellular recognition molecules
  • intracellular recognition molecules
  • adhesion molecules

Question 22

Question
Developing neurons have [blank_start]low[blank_end] potential for synaptic plasticity because [blank_start]stable[blank_end] synapses are required for proper synapse function.
Answer
  • low
  • high
  • stable
  • dynamic

Question 23

Question
Attached to the postsynaptic membrane is [blank_start]PSD[blank_end] ([blank_start]postsynaptic density[blank_end]). It ensures receptors are in close proximity to presynaptic neurotransmitter release sites.
Answer
  • PSD
  • postsynaptic density

Question 24

Question
The postsynaptic region is a very rigid structure
Answer
  • to allow for the best recognition of a presynaptic signal.
  • to reduce the risk of filopodia retraction.
  • to facilitate with the building of new synapses.

Question 25

Question
CaMKII (a Ca-dependent protein kinase) sits [blank_start]directly behind[blank_end] the NMDA receptors.
Answer
  • directly behind
  • in a certain distance to

Question 26

Question
On the postsynaptic site short-term plasticity can be achieved by bringing more receptors to the post-synaptic membrane. This is done with [blank_start]AMPA[blank_end] receptors.
Answer
  • AMPA
  • NMDA

Question 27

Question
Three models of the formation of new dendritic spines
Answer
  • New spines emerge directly.
  • LTP induction leads to generation of new spines via filopodia.
  • New spines originate via the division of existing spines.

Question 28

Question
[blank_start]NMDA[blank_end] receptor properties provide the biological correlate for Hebb's postulate. [blank_start]Presynaptic[blank_end] glutamate release depolarizes the postsynaptic neuron via [blank_start]AMPA[blank_end] receptors. After removal of the [blank_start]Mg2+[blank_end] block by depolarization glutamate causes [blank_start]Ca2+[blank_end] influx via NMDA receptors. Ca2+-dependent [blank_start]postsynaptic[blank_end] mechanisms lead then to the change in synaptic efficacy. Coincidence detector: [blank_start]NMDA receptors[blank_end] Coincidence signal: [blank_start]Ca2+ flux[blank_end]
Answer
  • Presynaptic
  • Postsynaptic
  • AMPA
  • Mg2+
  • Ca2+
  • NMDA receptors
  • Ca2+ flux
  • K+ flux
  • Na+ flux
  • AMPA receptosrs
  • NMDA
  • postsynaptic
  • presynaptic

Question 29

Question
Different relations between spike-timing and long term effects (LTP or LTD) are possible! A timing of +- [blank_start]5 ms[blank_end] can be critical.
Answer
  • 5 ms
  • 10 ms
  • 2 ms
  • 50 ms

Question 30

Question
A very important role in LTP play [blank_start]theta[blank_end]-rhythms. The [blank_start]formatio reticularis[blank_end] activates the [blank_start]septum[blank_end] with a rhythm of [blank_start]10-30[blank_end] Hz. The rhythm is received by [blank_start]granule cells[blank_end] and [blank_start]CA1[blank_end] neurons in the [blank_start]hippocampus[blank_end]. To induce LTP an action potential must reach a CA1 at the [blank_start]peak[blank_end] of the theta-oscillation.
Answer
  • theta
  • alpha
  • beta
  • gamma
  • epsilon
  • formatio reticularis
  • septum
  • dentate gyrus
  • septum
  • dentate gyrus
  • corpus callosum
  • 5-10
  • 70-90
  • 120-140
  • ~ 200
  • granule cells
  • interneurons
  • CA3
  • Schaffer collaterals
  • CA1
  • CA3
  • hippocampus
  • hypothalamus
  • peak
  • valley
  • 10-30

Question 31

Question
The unidirection of pre- and postsynaptic cells exists [blank_start]only on the synaptic level[blank_end]. Neurons [blank_start]can[blank_end] (can or cannot) be pre- and postsynaptic to each other simultaneously.
Answer
  • only on the synaptic level
  • also on the neuronal level
  • can
  • cannot

Question 32

Question
A kind of backpropagation within the cells happens when an AP travels from the cell body back to the dendrites. This is called [blank_start]dendritic action potential[blank_end].
Answer
  • dendritic action potential

Question 33

Question
[blank_start]Single[blank_end] synaptic contacts can lead to LTP or LTD processes triggering multiple neuronal circuit processes.
Answer
  • Single
  • Only multiple

Question 34

Question
The decision whether a signal is propagated forward through the axon or backward to the dendrites is made at the [blank_start]soma[blank_end].
Answer
  • soma
  • denrites
  • axon
  • postsynaptic density

Question 35

Question
In what respect are dendritic action potentials different to APs in the axon?
Answer
  • Dendrites are passive and the signal is attenuated.
  • They do not differ, a dAP is created by the influx of Na+ ions through Na+-channels.
  • Additional K+ channels make the dendritic membrane much less excitable than the axonal membrane and there is an active reduction of the dAP amplitude along the dendrite.

Question 36

Question
What are these different types of inputs called?
Answer
  • basal
  • proximal
  • distal

Question 37

Question
There can be different types of STDP even within one neuron, depending on the location, e.g. further down the axon or at the dendrites.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 38

Question
Triggering of backpropagating dendritic spikes is influenced by [blank_start]biochemical properties of dendrites[blank_end].
Answer
  • biochemical properties of dendrites
  • protein synthese at the soma
  • properties of the postsynaptic density

Question 39

Question
Active dendritic properties such as dendritic spikes are crucial for synaptic integration and plasticity.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 40

Question
Synapses far away from cell body are more sensitive for STDP.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 41

Question
Short-term habituation in aplysia's gill withdrawal reflex are due to [blank_start]reduced transmitter release[blank_end]. [blank_start]There are no[blank_end] postsynaptic changes in glutamate receptor density.
Answer
  • There are no
  • There are also
  • reduced transmitter release
  • reduced receptor density
  • increased transmitter relase

Question 42

Question
Short-term potentiation in aplysia Release of [blank_start]serotonin[blank_end] of the facilitating interneuron leads to activation of [blank_start]adenylyl cyclase[blank_end], the production of [blank_start]cAMP[blank_end] and release of inhibition on [blank_start]PKA[blank_end]. PKA [blank_start]blocks[blank_end] K+ channels which leads to a longer action potential. PKA also [blank_start]increases[blank_end] the exocytosis of neurotransmitters and [blank_start]opens[blank_end] further Ca2+ channels. An amplifying mechanism is provided by [blank_start]calmodulin[blank_end] which activates more adenylyl cyclase.
Answer
  • calmodulin
  • serotonin
  • adenylyl cyclase
  • cAMP
  • PKA
  • blocks
  • increases
  • opens

Question 43

Question
Persistent activity of PKA is modulated by [blank_start]ubiquitin hydrolase[blank_end] and leads to the growth of new [blank_start]synapses[blank_end].
Answer
  • ubiquitin hydrolase
  • synapses

Question 44

Question
NMDA receptors work as a coincidence detector in LTP. The two signals that must be present are: - [blank_start]depolarization[blank_end] of the postsynaptic cell - [blank_start]glutamate[blank_end] in the synaptic cleft
Answer
  • depolarization
  • glutamate

Question 45

Question
SynCAM is expressed in the [blank_start]dendritic[blank_end] cell. It is an extracellular recognition molecule, meaning that it [blank_start]sticks out of the membrane[blank_end].
Answer
  • dendritic
  • presynaptic
  • sticks out of the membrane
  • floats around in the synaptic cleft

Question 46

Question
In the early phase of LTP on the presynaptic site [blank_start]more[blank_end] neurotransmitters are released and on the postsynaptic site new [blank_start]AMPA[blank_end] receptors are brought to the membrane.
Answer
  • more
  • less
  • AMPA
  • NMDA

Question 47

Question
During the late phase of LTP new synapses are grown via [blank_start]CREB[blank_end]-mediated gene expression.
Answer
  • CREB
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