Visual System

Lukas Paulun
Quiz by Lukas Paulun, updated more than 1 year ago
Lukas Paulun
Created by Lukas Paulun over 2 years ago
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Description

Master Neuroscience (From Membrane to Brain [Lecture]) Quiz on Visual System, created by Lukas Paulun on 12/08/2018.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
The primary visual pathway
Answer
  • eye
  • optic nerve
  • optic chiasm
  • optic tract
  • lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)
  • optic radiation
  • primary visual cortex (V1)

Question 2

Question
In the optic chiasm fibers from the temporal hemiretinas [blank_start]proceed to the ipsilateral hemisphere[blank_end] and fibers from the nasal hemiretinas [blank_start]cross to the contralateral hemisphere[blank_end].
Answer
  • proceed to the ipsilateral hemisphere
  • cross to the contralateral hemisphere

Question 3

Question
Visible spetrum: Wavelengths from [blank_start]370[blank_end] to [blank_start]770[blank_end] nm.
Answer
  • 370
  • 770

Question 4

Question
The optic disc is [blank_start]nasal[blank_end] to the fovea, so signals from the fovea are processed in the [blank_start]ipsilateral[blank_end] hemisphere of V1.
Answer
  • nasal
  • temporal
  • ipsilateral
  • contralateral

Question 5

Question
Temporal to the binocular zone are the [blank_start]monocular crescents[blank_end].
Answer
  • monocular crescents

Question 6

Question
From V1 a ventral pathway goes to the [blank_start]temporal[blank_end] lobe with information about [blank_start]what[blank_end] the stimulus is and its [blank_start]color[blank_end]. A dorsal pathway goes to the [blank_start]parietal[blank_end] lobe with information about [blank_start]where[blank_end] the stimulus is and its [blank_start]motion[blank_end].
Answer
  • temporal
  • parietal
  • occipital
  • frontal
  • what
  • where
  • how big
  • color
  • motion
  • shape
  • speed
  • parietal
  • occipital
  • frontal
  • temporal
  • where
  • what
  • motion
  • color
  • shape

Question 7

Question
Visuotopic maps are more precisly organized at [blank_start]early[blank_end] levels of the pathway.
Answer
  • early
  • higher

Question 8

Question
Retinal ganglion encode information about [blank_start]contrast[blank_end] in the visual field.
Answer
  • contrast
  • brightness
  • color
  • movement

Question 9

Question
Light is refracted by the [blank_start]cornea[blank_end] and the [blank_start]lens[blank_end] and focused onto the [blank_start]retina[blank_end]. (Alphabetical order)
Answer
  • cornea
  • lens
  • retina

Question 10

Question
In most vertebrates the [blank_start]cornea[blank_end] is fixed and dynamic focusing is achieved by a flexible [blank_start]lens[blank_end] and the [blank_start]ciliary[blank_end] muscle.
Answer
  • cornea
  • lens
  • lens
  • cornea
  • ciliary
  • flexing
  • extending

Question 11

Question
The fovea is free of blood-vessels.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 12

Question
In the foveola the proximal neurons of the retina are shifted aside so light has direct access to the photoreceptors.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 13

Question
The mammalian retina. Put layers left and cell types right
Answer
  • Outer nuclear layer
  • Outer plexiform layer
  • Inner nuclear layer
  • Inner plexiform layer
  • Ganglion cell layer
  • Photoreceptor cell bodies
  • Bipolar, horizontal and amacrine cells
  • Retinal ganglion cells

Question 14

Question
The vertical pathway down the retina is [blank_start]excitatory and inhibitory[blank_end] and goes from the [blank_start]photoreceptors[blank_end] via [blank_start]bipolar cells[blank_end] to the [blank_start]retinal ganglion cells[blank_end]. Horizontal pathways [blank_start]can be excitatory or inhibitory[blank_end] and include [blank_start]horizontal cells[blank_end] and [blank_start]amacrine cells[blank_end].
Answer
  • excitatory and inhibitory
  • excitatory
  • inhibitory
  • bipolar cells
  • horizontal cells
  • amacrine cells
  • photoreceptors
  • retinal ganglion cells
  • retinal ganglion cells
  • photoreceptors
  • can be excitatory or inhibitory
  • are excitatory
  • are inhibitory
  • horizontal cells
  • retinal ganglion cells
  • bipolar cells
  • amacrine cells
  • photoreceptor cells

Question 15

Question
Retinal Pigmental [blank_start]Epithelium[blank_end] (RPE) is located between the light-sensitive outer segments of the [blank_start]photoreceptors[blank_end] and the blood vessels of the [blank_start]choroid[blank_end].
Answer
  • Epithelium
  • Epiderm
  • Epimeninges
  • photoreceptors
  • bipolar cells
  • retinal ganglion cells
  • choroid
  • cornea

Question 16

Question
Bruch's membrane is the [blank_start]innermost[blank_end] layer of the choroid and acts as a [blank_start]diffusion barrier[blank_end] between [blank_start]Retinal Pigmental Epithelium (RTE)[blank_end] and the [blank_start]blood vessels[blank_end].
Answer
  • innermost
  • outermost
  • diffusion barrier
  • light absorbing barrier
  • Retinal Pigmental Epithelium (RPE)
  • the photoreceptors
  • blood vessels
  • bipolar cells

Question 17

Question
There are approximately [blank_start]100 million[blank_end] rods and [blank_start]6 million[blank_end] cones. There is only 1 type of [blank_start]rods[blank_end] but 3 types of [blank_start]cones[blank_end]. The fovea contains no [blank_start]rods[blank_end] but is densely packed with small [blank_start]cones[blank_end]. A few millimeters outside the fovea [blank_start]rods greatly outnumber cones[blank_end].
Answer
  • 100 million
  • 100 billion
  • 10 million
  • 6 million
  • 60 million
  • 20 million
  • rods
  • cones
  • cones
  • rods
  • rods
  • cones
  • cones
  • rods
  • rods greatly outnumber cones
  • cones greatly outnumber rods

Question 18

Question
[blank_start]Scotopic[blank_end] vision: vision under low-light levels. [blank_start]Mesopic[blank_end] vision: vision under intermediate lighting conditions. [blank_start]Photopic[blank_end] vision: vision under well-lit conditions.
Answer
  • Scotopic
  • Mesopic
  • Photopic

Question 19

Question
Rods are responsible for [blank_start]scotopic and mesopic[blank_end] vision. Cones are responsible for [blank_start]photopic[blank_end] vision.
Answer
  • scotopic and mesopic
  • scotopic
  • mesopic and photopic
  • photopic

Question 20

Question
Which one is true?
Answer
  • Cones are much faster than rods.
  • Rods are much faster than cones.
  • Cones and rods have approximately the same speed.

Question 21

Question
The central part of the fovea is called foveola or foveal [blank_start]pit[blank_end]. The adjacent region is called foveal [blank_start]slope[blank_end].
Answer
  • pit
  • slope

Question 22

Question
The fovea contains mostly [blank_start]M-[blank_end] and [blank_start]L-[blank_end]cones but only very few [blank_start]S-[blank_end]cones.
Answer
  • M-
  • L-
  • S-

Question 23

Question
Receptive field of a visual neuron: The area [blank_start]in visual space[blank_end] where changes in light intensity (or composition, layout, ...) trigger a change in the neuronal response. This change can be excitatory or/and inhibitory.
Answer
  • in visual space
  • on the retina

Question 24

Question
The mitochondria of photoreceptors are contained in their [blank_start]inner segment[blank_end].
Answer
  • inner segment
  • outer segment
  • cell body
  • synaptic terminal

Question 25

Question
Outer and inner segments of rods and cones are connected by the [blank_start]central cilium[blank_end] (cc).
Answer
  • central cilium

Question 26

Question
Absorption of a photon [blank_start]hyperpolarizes[blank_end] photoreceptors and generates [blank_start]OFF[blank_end]-responses.
Answer
  • hyperpolarizes
  • depolarizes
  • OFF
  • ON

Question 27

Question
Phototransduction Rhodopsin is densely packed in the [blank_start]disk membranes[blank_end] of rods. It consists of the protein opsin and the light-absorbing part [blank_start]retinal[blank_end]. In the dark retinal is in the [blank_start]11-cis[blank_end] configuration but absorption of a photon causes a flip to the [blank_start]all-trans[blank_end] configuration. This causes a change in the opsin to an [blank_start]activated[blank_end] state called [blank_start]metarhodopsin II[blank_end]. Metarhodopsin II can then activate [blank_start]hundreds of molecules[blank_end] called transducin. Transducin in turn [blank_start]activates[blank_end] phosphodiesterase which hydrolizes cGMP and leads to [blank_start]a decrease[blank_end] of the cGMP level. PDE hydrolizes [blank_start]more than 1000 cGMP[blank_end] per second. This causes the Na+ and Ca2+ channels to [blank_start]close[blank_end] and a sharp [blank_start]decrease[blank_end] in glutamate release. The metarhodopsin II splits within minutes to opsin and free [blank_start]all-trans retinal[blank_end]. This is either directly transformed back to 11-cis retinal of first reduced to all-trans-retinol, then to 11-cis retinol and then back to 11-cis retinal. This happens in [blank_start]the retinal pigment epithelium[blank_end].
Answer
  • disk membranes
  • inner segment
  • retinal
  • retinol
  • metarhodopsin
  • 11-cis
  • all-trans
  • all-trans
  • 11-cis
  • activated
  • inactivated
  • metarhodopsin II
  • metarhodopsin
  • rhodopsin II
  • hundreds of molecules
  • exactly one molecule
  • activates
  • deactivates
  • a decrease
  • an increase
  • more than 1000 cGMP
  • approximately 1 cGMP
  • close
  • open
  • decrease
  • increase
  • all-trans retinal
  • 11-cis retinal
  • the retinal pigment epithelium
  • the outer plexiform layer
  • the inner plexiform layer
  • Bruch's membrane
  • the outer nuclear layer
  • the inner nuclear layer

Question 28

Question
Metarhodopsin II can activate hundreds of transducin molecules because
Answer
  • there is a lot more metarhodopsin II than transducin.
  • both are anchored to the membrane of the photoreceptor.

Question 29

Question
Termination of the phototransduction cascade (1) Metarhodopsin is first phosphorylated and its interaction with [blank_start]transducin[blank_end] is blocked by the protein [blank_start]arrestin[blank_end]. (2) Active transducin has [blank_start]GTPase[blank_end] activity which leads to [blank_start]inactivation[blank_end] of [blank_start]phosphodiesterase[blank_end]. (3) A negative feedback by [blank_start]decrease[blank_end] of [blank_start]Ca2+[blank_end] influx leads to synthesis of new [blank_start]cGMP[blank_end].
Answer
  • transducin
  • phosphodiesterase
  • cGMP
  • arrestin
  • cGMP
  • inactivation
  • reactivation
  • Ca2+
  • Na+
  • decrease
  • increase
  • cGMP
  • GTP
  • GDP
  • GMP
  • GTPase
  • GDPase
  • cGMPase
  • phosphodiesterase
  • cGMP

Question 30

Question
cGMP synthesis is 5-10 times higher in [blank_start]cones[blank_end] than in [blank_start]rods[blank_end].
Answer
  • cones
  • rods

Question 31

Question
Adaptation to light is modulated by changes in the influx of [blank_start]Ca2+[blank_end].
Answer
  • Ca2+
  • Na+

Question 32

Question
Photoreceptors tonically fire action potentials and shut down as a reaction to a light stimulus.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 33

Question
Photoreceptors transmit their signals to bipolar and horizontal cells via [blank_start]ribbon[blank_end] synapses. Their function is not entirely clear but they serve as a hotspot of synaptic vesicle exocytosis as well as a replenishment station. They disassemble when there is a high concentration of [blank_start]Ca2+[blank_end].
Answer
  • ribbon
  • Ca2+

Question 34

Question
Which one is true?
Answer
  • Ribbon synapses look the same in rods and cones.
  • Ribbon synapses differ between rods and cones.

Question 35

Question
Horizontal cells form synapses to [blank_start]photoreceptors[blank_end] in the [blank_start]outer plexiform layer[blank_end], while amacrine cells form synapses to [blank_start]retinal ganglion cells[blank_end] in the [blank_start]inner plexiform layer[blank_end].
Answer
  • photoreceptors
  • outer plexiform layer
  • retinal ganglion cells
  • bipolar cells
  • inner plexiform layer
  • outer nuclear layer
  • inner nuclear layer
  • ganglion cell layer

Question 36

Question
The synapses of cones connect [blank_start]to ON and OFF[blank_end] bipolar and horizontal cells and form [blank_start]multiple small ribbons[blank_end]. The synapses of rods connect [blank_start]only to ON[blank_end] bipolar and horizontal cells and form [blank_start]a single large ribbon[blank_end].
Answer
  • to ON and OFF
  • only to ON
  • only to OFF
  • multiple small ribbons
  • a single large ribbon

Question 37

Question
Which of these cells fire action potentials?
Answer
  • Photoreceptors
  • Horizontal cells
  • Bipolar cells
  • Retinal ganglion cells

Question 38

Question
ON- and OFF-type responses occur for the first time in [blank_start]bipolar cells[blank_end]. The lateral inhibition is mediated by [blank_start]inhibitory[blank_end] [blank_start]horizontal cells[blank_end] which use [blank_start]electrical[blank_end] synapses.
Answer
  • bipolar cells
  • photoreceptors
  • retinal ganglion cells
  • inhibitory
  • excitatory
  • horizontal cells
  • amacrine cells
  • electrical
  • chemical

Question 39

Question
Rod ON and cone ON bipolar cells express [blank_start]mGluR6[blank_end] which leads to [blank_start]inhibitory[blank_end] glutamate receptors. Cone OFF bipolar cells express [blank_start]AMPA-/kainate[blank_end] which leads to [blank_start]excitatory[blank_end] glutamate receptors.
Answer
  • mGluR6
  • cGMP
  • PDE
  • inhibitory
  • AMPA-/kainate
  • excitatory

Question 40

Question
Horizontal cells provide negative feedback to cone terminal which leads to a short peak in the cone response and a subsequent smaller steady level. This is related to the transient response of retinal ganglion ells.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 41

Question
There are ON and OFF [blank_start]cone[blank_end] bipolar cells but only [blank_start]ON[blank_end] [blank_start]rod[blank_end] bipolar cells.
Answer
  • cone
  • rod
  • ON
  • OFF

Question 42

Question
Rod ON bipolar cells connect to [blank_start]AII amacrine cells[blank_end] which make [blank_start]excitatory[blank_end] [blank_start]gap junctions[blank_end] to ON-cone bipolar cells and [blank_start]glycinergic[blank_end] [blank_start]inhibitory[blank_end] synapses to OFF-cone bipolar cells.
Answer
  • AII amacrine cells
  • horizontal cells
  • retinal ganglion cells
  • excitatory
  • inhibitory
  • gap junctions
  • glutamatergic synapses
  • glycinergic
  • glutamatergic
  • GABAergic
  • inhibitory
  • excitatory

Question 43

Question
Responses of retinal ganglion cells ...
Answer
  • are independent of absolute brightness and encode relative light intensities of center vs. surround.
  • encode the absolute brightness and differentiation between relative light intensities happens further down the pathway in the visual cortex.

Question 44

Question
?
Answer
  • lens
  • pupil
  • posterior eyechamber
  • anterior eyechamber
  • cornea
  • iris
  • sciliary muscle
  • sclera
  • choroid
  • macula
  • fovea
  • retina

Question 45

Question
Alphabetic: Low-level processing: [blank_start]Color[blank_end] [blank_start]Contrast[blank_end] [blank_start]Movement direction[blank_end] [blank_start]Orientation[blank_end] Intermediate-level processing: [blank_start]Contour integration[blank_end] [blank_start]Object motion and shape[blank_end] [blank_start]Surface depth[blank_end] [blank_start]Surface properties[blank_end] High-level processing: [blank_start]Object identification[blank_end]
Answer
  • Color
  • Contrast
  • Movement direction
  • Orientation
  • Contour integration
  • Object motion and shape
  • Surface depth
  • Surface properties
  • Object identification

Question 46

Question
Development of the eye: The [blank_start]optic cup[blank_end] and the [blank_start]ecto[blank_end]derm form the eye. The inverted optic cup forms the [blank_start]retina[blank_end], the outer layer the [blank_start]pigment epithelium[blank_end]. The retina is a protrusion of the [blank_start]diencephalon[blank_end].
Answer
  • optic cup
  • ecto
  • diencephalon
  • retina
  • pigment epithelium

Question 47

Question
For near vision the lens is [blank_start]round[blank_end] and the ciliary muscle [blank_start]contracted[blank_end], for far vision the lens is [blank_start]flat[blank_end] and the ciliary muscle [blank_start]relaxed[blank_end].
Answer
  • round
  • flat
  • contracted
  • relaxed

Question 48

Question
Shortsightedness: [blank_start]Myopia[blank_end] Farsightedness: [blank_start]Hyperopia[blank_end]
Answer
  • Myopia
  • Hyperopia

Question 49

Question
Diffusion barriers of the mammalian retina
Answer
  • Bruch's membrane
  • membrana limitans externa
  • Müller cells
  • membrana limitans interna

Question 50

Question
Cortical magnification: The central [blank_start]10[blank_end] degrees of the retina project to [blank_start]50[blank_end] % of the primary visual cortex.
Answer
  • 10
  • 50

Question 51

Question
Termination of the phototransduction cascade: Rhodopsin-kinase [blank_start]phosphorylates[blank_end] metarhodopsin, which then binds arrestin that blocks the interaction with [blank_start]transducin[blank_end] ([blank_start]GDP-GTP[blank_end] exchange). Active transducin has an intrinsic [blank_start]GTP[blank_end]-ase activity that splits its own GTP to GDP and thereby inactivates [blank_start]phosphodiesterase[blank_end]. The [blank_start]decrease[blank_end] in [blank_start]Ca2+[blank_end] leads to the activation of Guanylate-cyclase by [blank_start]GCAP[blank_end]. This leads to the synthetization of cGMP from [blank_start]GTP[blank_end].
Answer
  • phosphorylates
  • hydrolates
  • GDP-GTP
  • GMP-GDP
  • transducin
  • phosphodiesterase
  • cGMP
  • GTP
  • GDP
  • GMP
  • phosphodiesterase
  • cGMP
  • decrease
  • increase
  • Ca2+
  • Na+
  • K+
  • GCAP
  • GCAT
  • GBAP
  • GBBT
  • GTP
  • GDP
  • 5'GMP

Question 52

Question
[blank_start]Horizontal[blank_end] cells are responsible for the OFF-surround response of bipolar cells.
Answer
  • Horizontal
  • Amacrine
  • Photoreceptor
  • Retinal ganglion

Question 53

Question
Cone-OFF bipolar cells and horizontal cells are excited by glutamate via [blank_start]ionotropic[blank_end] glutamate receptors.
Answer
  • ionotropic

Question 54

Question
Three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to photoreceptor cells: (a) [blank_start]GABA[blank_end] release (b) Ephaptic modulation by hemi-gap junctions in horizontal cell [blank_start]dendrites[blank_end] (c) [blank_start]H+[blank_end] modulates presynaptic photoreceptor [blank_start]calcium[blank_end] currents
Answer
  • calcium
  • sodium
  • potassium
  • H+
  • Phosphor units
  • NO
  • dendrites
  • axons
  • GABA
  • glycine
  • acetylcholine

Question 55

Question
OFF retinal ganglion cells have their synapses [blank_start]above[blank_end] ON retinal ganglion cells in the [blank_start]inner plexiform layer[blank_end].
Answer
  • above
  • below
  • inner plexiform layer
  • outer plexiform layer
  • inner nuclear layer
  • outer nuclear layer
  • ganglion cell layer

Question 56

Question
P retinal ganglion cells have [blank_start]small[blank_end] receptive fields with [blank_start]high spectral sensitivity[blank_end] and project to the [blank_start]ventral stream[blank_end]. M retinal ganglion cells have [blank_start]large[blank_end] receptive fields with [blank_start]broad spectral sensitivity[blank_end] and project to the [blank_start]dorsal stream[blank_end].
Answer
  • small
  • high spectral sensitivity
  • ventral stream
  • large
  • broad spectral sensitivity
  • dorsal stream

Question 57

Question
Metarhodopsin II consists of [blank_start]all-trans[blank_end] [blank_start]retinal[blank_end] bound to opsin. It helps to exchange [blank_start]GDP to GTP[blank_end] on hunderds of transducin molecules to activate them (first amplification step). Phosphodiesterase has an [blank_start]inhibitor[blank_end] which is [blank_start]removed[blank_end] by active transducin. The [blank_start]alpha[blank_end]-subunit of active PDE hydrolyzes more than thousand [blank_start]cGMP to 5'GMP[blank_end] per second (second amplification step).
Answer
  • all-trans
  • 11-cis
  • retinal
  • retinol
  • GDP to GTP
  • GMP to GDP
  • GTP to cGMP
  • inhibitor
  • activator
  • removed
  • produced
  • alpha
  • beta
  • gamma
  • cGMP to 5'GMP
  • cGMP to GDP
  • GDP to GTP
  • GTP to cGMP
  • beta-gamma
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