Clinical Pathology (101-200) MCQs- Year 4 PMU

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Masters Pathoanatomy Quiz on Clinical Pathology (101-200) MCQs- Year 4 PMU, created by Med Student on 10/01/2019.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Chronic bronchitis can be characterized by the following
Answer
  • hypertrophy of the smooth muscle layer of the bronchi
  • squamous cell metaplasia of the respiratory epithelium
  • can cause cor pulmonale chronicum
  • all of the above

Question 2

Question
Which type of emphysema most frequently causes pneumothorax?
Answer
  • paraseptal
  • senile
  • bullous
  • centrolobular

Question 3

Question
In diffuse pulmonary emphysema we can notice the following changes
Answer
  • the lungs are with increased density
  • the lungs are enlarged
  • we observe atrophy of the interalveolar septi
  • there is hypertrophy of the interalveolar septi

Question 4

Question
What is the order in which we observe the different histological stages in pneumonia crouposa?
Answer
  • congestion, grey hepatisation, red hepatisation, resolution
  • grey hepatisation, congestion, red hepatisation, resolution
  • congestion, red hepatisation, grey hepatisation, resolution
  • congestion, red hepatisation, grey hepatisation, lung abscess

Question 5

Question
Which complications can we observe in lobar pneumonia?
Answer
  • carnification
  • fibrinous pleuritis
  • lung abscess
  • none of the above

Question 6

Question
In which stage of pneumonia crouposa (lobar pneumonia) can we hear crepitations?
Answer
  • grey hepatisation
  • congestion
  • resolution
  • red hepatisation

Question 7

Question
Pleural friction in pneumonia crouposa (lobar pneumonia) can be detected in
Answer
  • the stage of congestion
  • the stage of grey hepatisation
  • there is no pleural friction in pneumonia crouposa
  • all stages

Question 8

Question
Characteristic features of hypostatic pneumonia
Answer
  • it is observed in the apical lobes of the lungs
  • it is unilateral
  • it is observed in the lower posterior segments of both lungs
  • there is impaired ventilation in the segments where it occurs

Question 9

Question
In hypostatic pneumonia
Answer
  • there is activation of saprophytic flora
  • it is caused by pneumococci
  • it is caused by Pneumocystis carini
  • there is hypoventilation in the lower posterior segments

Question 10

Question
In bronchopneumonia we can observe
Answer
  • scattered grey-yellow foci in the lung parenchyma
  • confluent grey-yellow foci
  • central collection of pus in these foci
  • rusty sputum

Question 11

Question
Bronchopneumonia is characterized by
Answer
  • high fever, weakness, cough
  • can be complicated by septicopyemia
  • can be descending from purulent bronchitis
  • mycetoma

Question 12

Question
Fungal pneumonia can be caused by
Answer
  • old age
  • long-term antibiotic treatment
  • in autoimmune diseases, where patients are treated with corticosteroids
  • immune deficit

Question 13

Question
In fungal pneumonia we can observe
Answer
  • Fungal colonies
  • Uncharacteristic clinical signs
  • Interstitial pneumonia
  • Van Gieson positive fungi

Question 14

Question
In interstitial pneumonia
Answer
  • there is involvement of only one lobe
  • the inflammatory infiltrate is rich in lymphocytes
  • plasma cells are seen in the inflammatory infiltrate
  • the interalveolar septi are thickened

Question 15

Question
In pneumonia crouposa (lobar pneumonia) we can observe the following histological changes
Answer
  • focal purulent inflammation
  • fibrino-purulent exudate in the alveoli
  • artificial detachment of the fibrin fibrils from the alveolar walls
  • spared alveoli filled with air

Question 16

Question
What are the characteristic microscopic features of chronic pyelonephritis?
Answer
  • pericapsular glomerulosclerosis
  • mesangial hyperplasia
  • lymphoid infiltrates in the interstitium
  • "thyroidization " of the tubules

Question 17

Question
What is the most common outcome of tubal pregnancy?
Answer
  • rupture of the fallopian tube
  • secondary peritoneal pregnancy
  • pregnancy with normal birth
  • fetal transition into lithopedion

Question 18

Question
Which of the following diseases affect the white substance of the brain?
Answer
  • post-vaccination encephalitis
  • polioencephalitis
  • multiple sclerosis
  • lethargic encephalitis

Question 19

Question
Where are the first and major vascular changes in hypertension?
Answer
  • aorta
  • vessels of muscle type
  • arterioles
  • veins

Question 20

Question
Specify which stages are not found in lobar pneumonia
Answer
  • proliferative
  • gray hepatization
  • red hepatization
  • resolution

Question 21

Question
The most common case of acute post hemorrhagic anemia are:
Answer
  • acute hemolysis
  • traumatic
  • intoxication
  • all three above

Question 22

Question
Which are tumor-like processes in the mouth
Answer
  • polyp
  • fibroma
  • hemangioma
  • epulis

Question 23

Question
In myeloma often develops
Answer
  • hyper-para-proteinemia
  • amyloidosis
  • renal failure
  • chronic pyelonephritis

Question 24

Question
In periarteritis nodosa occur
Answer
  • calcium deposits in the vessel wall
  • endarteriitic changes
  • fibrinoid necrosis in the vessel wall
  • amyloidosis

Question 25

Question
Tubulorexis is seen in
Answer
  • acute pyelonephritis
  • ischemic tubular necrosis
  • toxic tubular necrosis
  • urinary acid attack

Question 26

Question
Which of the above pathological processes, refers to the proliferative state of rheumatism?
Answer
  • mucoid edema
  • fibrinoid deposition
  • growth of connective tissue
  • formation of granulomas

Question 27

Question
Basal leptomeningitis is found in
Answer
  • sepsis
  • tuberculosis
  • influenza
  • neurosyphilis

Question 28

Question
What diseases comprise COPD
Answer
  • chronic bronchitis
  • primary pulmonary hypertension
  • lung carnification
  • pulmonary emphysema

Question 29

Question
Which of the ovarian tumors is related to transitional epithelium
Answer
  • Brenner tumor
  • Adrenoblastoma
  • Mucinous cystadenoma
  • Serous cystadenoma

Question 30

Question
Typical changes in the heart in hypertension are
Answer
  • hypertrophy of the left ventricle
  • hypertrophy of the right ventricle
  • mitral stenosis
  • brown atrophy of the liver

Question 31

Question
In classical nephritic syndrome is found
Answer
  • heavy proteinuria over 3,5 g/24 h
  • erythrocytes in the urine
  • hypertension
  • azotemia

Question 32

Question
Which are the morphological subtypes of ameloblastoma
Answer
  • cystic
  • laminar
  • soft
  • solid

Question 33

Question
What complications can occur at the site of chronic heart aneurysm?
Answer
  • myocardial rupture
  • mural thrombosis
  • regeneration of the muscle layer
  • adhesive pericarditis

Question 34

Question
Indicate where the viruses of hepatitis A and B replicate after enteral or parenteral penetration
Answer
  • intestines
  • in mesenteric lymph nodes
  • in other lymphoid organs
  • in liver

Question 35

Question
Serous meningitis can be caused by
Answer
  • herpes simplex infection
  • a streptococcal infection
  • influenza infection
  • mumps

Question 36

Question
"Big white kidneys " are seen in
Answer
  • chronic pyelonephritis
  • rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
  • renal amyloidosis
  • diabetic nephropathy

Question 37

Question
Lobar pneumonia is
Answer
  • lobular
  • fibrinous
  • catarrhal
  • pleuropneumonia

Question 38

Question
What are the complications of atherosclerosis of the femoral artery
Answer
  • thrombophlebitis
  • atrophy of the limb
  • gangrene
  • thrombosis

Question 39

Question
The pathogenesis of hydrocephalus is due to
Answer
  • the increased volume of CSF
  • swelling of the brain
  • imbalance between absorption and spinal fluid production
  • ischemia

Question 40

Question
Indicate which diseases are intraepithelial neoplasms
Answer
  • pre-cancers
  • tumor-like processes
  • invasive tumors
  • inflammatory diseases

Question 41

Question
When is mostly seen the acute aneurysm of the heart?
Answer
  • in the acute phase of myocardial infarction
  • in diphtheria myocarditis
  • rheumatic myocarditis
  • at aortic stenosis

Question 42

Question
Early carcinoma of the stomach means
Answer
  • carcinoma infiltrating submucosa
  • carcinoma in situ
  • carcinoma infiltrating muscular layer
  • carcinoma infiltrating the serosa

Question 43

Question
What is abortion?
Answer
  • an inflammatory condition
  • a spontaneous abortion
  • artificial interruption of pregnancy
  • tumor

Question 44

Question
Which of the following morphologic methods are used for classifying the lymphomas
Answer
  • Staining with van Gieson
  • PAS reaction
  • Staining with von Kossa
  • Immunohistochemistry

Question 45

Question
Which of these tumors frequently metastasize to bone
Answer
  • liposarcoma
  • osteosarcoma
  • prostate cancer
  • breast cancer

Question 46

Question
Which of the following thyroid cancer is associated with amyloidosis
Answer
  • Follicular carcinoma
  • Medullary carcinoma

Question 47

Question
Which type of lung carcinoma has the worst prognosis
Answer
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Small cell carcinoma

Question 48

Question
Which of the following is true for medullary carcinoma of the breast
Answer
  • Worse prognosis
  • Prominent lymphoid infiltrate

Question 49

Question
Which of the following type of lipids has the highest association with atherosclerosis
Answer
  • Triglycerides
  • Low-density lipoproteins

Question 50

Question
Calcifying sclerosis of aorta and big arteries is type of
Answer
  • Dystrophic calcification
  • Metastaic calcification

Question 51

Question
The most frequent form of primary glomerular disease in children is
Answer
  • Minimal change disease
  • Acute glomerulonephritis

Question 52

Question
Hyperfunction of anterior pituitary in pre-pubertal children generally can result in:
Answer
  • Acromegaly
  • Gigantism

Question 53

Question
The role of external radiation in the etiology of thyroid cancer is predominant in:
Answer
  • Papillary carcinoma
  • Follicular carcinoma

Question 54

Question
The following type of carcinoma of the breast is characterized by ‘lndian file’ pattern of tumor cells
Answer
  • Infiltrating ductal carcinoma
  • Invasive lobular carcinoma

Question 55

Question
Prostatic hyperplasia affects most often
Answer
  • Peripheral prostate
  • Periurethral prostate

Question 56

Question
Which criteria refer to pernicious anaemia
Answer
  • Low serum B12
  • Megaloblastic anaemia
  • Antibody against intrinsic factor of stomach
  • Gastric parietal cell antibody

Question 57

Question
Which of the following tumors have association with occupational exposure to asbestosis
Answer
  • Silicosis
  • Malignant mesothelioma
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Laryngeal carcinoma

Question 58

Question
Which of the following features characterize ulcerative colitis, except
Answer
  • Formation of crypt abscess and cryptitis
  • Superficial mucosal ulceration
  • Depletion of goblet cells and mucus
  • Stricture formation in chronic cases

Question 59

Question
Philadelphia chromosome is characterized by
Answer
  • translocation (8; 14)
  • translocation (9:22)
  • translocation (22:9)
  • translocation (14;8)

Question 60

Question
Which of the following are included in classic Hodgkin’s disease
Answer
  • Histiocytic fibrosis
  • Lymphocytic depletion
  • Mixed cellularity
  • Nodular sclerosis

Question 61

Question
Pulseless disease is
Answer
  • Temporal arteritis
  • Kawasaki’s disease
  • Takayasu arteritis
  • Buerger’s disease

Question 62

Question
The morphologic variants of diagnostic cells in Hodgkin’s disease are
Answer
  • Cells with bilobed nucleus appearing as mirror image
  • Megaloblastic cells
  • Lacunar type cell
  • Large cleaved cells

Question 63

Question
Crohn’s disease is characterized by the following histopathologic features
Answer
  • Non-caseating sarcoid like granulomas
  • Deep transmural ulceration
  • Multiple abscesses
  • Pseudopolyps

Question 64

Question
According to monoclonal atherosclerotic hypothesis, the primary event in atherosclerosis is
Answer
  • Monoclonal proliferation of endothelial cells
  • Monoclonal proliferation of smooth muscle cells
  • Monoclonal proliferation of monocytes
  • Monoclonal proliferation of foam cells

Question 65

Question
Barrett’s oesophagus is
Answer
  • Congenital anomaly
  • Inflammatory disease
  • Metaplastic process
  • Neoplastic lesion

Question 66

Question
The most common site of involvement of atherosclerotic aneurysm is
Answer
  • Arch of aorta
  • Thoracic aorta
  • Suprarenal part of abdominal aorta
  • Intrarenal part of abdominal aorta

Question 67

Question
The following histologic types of bronchogenic carcinoma have strong association with cigarette smoking except
Answer
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Small cell carcinoma
  • Large cell carcinoma
  • Adenocarcinoma

Question 68

Question
The most important and common complicated atheromatous lesion in the coronary artery in route myocardial infarction is
Answer
  • Calcification
  • Coronary artery thrombosis
  • Aneurysm
  • Ulceration

Question 69

Question
In hypertensive heart disease left ventricular hypertrophy is correlated with
Answer
  • Duration of hypertension
  • Severity of hypertension
  • Cause of hypertension
  • Severity of coronary atherosclerosis

Question 70

Question
The most common causative organism for lobar pneumonia is
Answer
  • Staphylococci
  • Streptococci
  • Pneumococci
  • Haemophilus

Question 71

Question
The common complications of gastric ulcer are
Answer
  • penetration
  • pneumonia
  • hemorrhage
  • perforation

Question 72

Question
Which of the following types of acute viral hepatitis become chronic hepatitis
Answer
  • type A
  • type B
  • type C
  • all the tree answers are correct

Question 73

Question
What complication can occur due to atherosclerosis of femoral artery?
Answer
  • thrombophlebitis
  • diabetes mellitus
  • gangrene
  • pulmonary thromboembolism

Question 74

Question
Nephrotic syndrome develops in
Answer
  • urine retention
  • acute renal failure
  • acute pyelonephritis
  • glomerulonephritis

Question 75

Question
The infection which leads to pyelonephritis may be a result of
Answer
  • hematogenous dissemination
  • ascending dissemination
  • immune conflict
  • as a complication of glomerulonephritis

Question 76

Question
Which of the following diseases does not lead to nephrosclerosis
Answer
  • atherosclerosis
  • diabetes mellitus
  • diabetes insipidus
  • gout

Question 77

Question
Squamous cell carcinoma is a common tumor in the
Answer
  • Uterine body
  • Ovaries
  • Fallopian tubes
  • Uterine cervix

Question 78

Question
Which of the morphological methods are used for subtyping lymphomas?
Answer
  • Van Gieson staining
  • PAS
  • Von Kossa staining
  • Immunohistochemistry

Question 79

Question
Which of the following complications can develop in pulmonary carcinoma
Answer
  • mantle pneumonia
  • brown induration of lungs
  • empyema
  • massive hemorrhage

Question 80

Question
Determine the pathological process in the lung parenchyma, having in mind the microscopic appearance - a focus of necrosis, detritus, leukocytes and macrophages
Answer
  • acute pulmonary abscess
  • chronic pulmonary abscess
  • bronchiectasis
  • lung cancer in decay

Question 81

Question
Point out the characteristic macroscopic changes of chronic obstructive emphysema
Answer
  • decreased in size lungs, collapsed to the hilum
  • lungs with increased volume
  • thick consistency of the lungs
  • reduced elasticity and soft consistency

Question 82

Question
What disease is endometriosis?
Answer
  • Inflammation of the uterine mucosa
  • Inflammation of the uterine cervix
  • Dishormonal disease
  • Tumor

Question 83

Question
Gynecomastia is a disease of
Answer
  • breast in women
  • ovaries
  • male breast
  • testes

Question 84

Question
What is typical for the first stage of syphilis?
Answer
  • siphilides
  • ulcus durum
  • gumma
  • generalized lymphadenitis

Question 85

Question
For tuberculous meningitis the following histological changes are typical
Answer
  • purulent infiltration in the meninges
  • endarteriitis obliterans
  • granulomatous inflammation
  • caseous necrosis

Question 86

Question
Why are occupational diseases named pneumoconiosis?
Answer
  • cor hypertonicum
  • disease of the lungs associated with mineral dust inhalation
  • pneumonia
  • infection of the bronchial wall and lung parenchyma

Question 87

Question
Which of the following factors play a role in the development of bronchial carcinoma?
Answer
  • chronic bronchitis
  • smoking
  • influenza
  • work/ environmental factors

Question 88

Question
What is the exudate in the pleural cavity and pericardial sac due to lymphatic spread of pulmonary carcinoma into them?
Answer
  • fibrinous
  • serous
  • hemorrhagic
  • purulent

Question 89

Question
What forms of silicosis do you know?
Answer
  • nodular
  • diffuse-sclerotic
  • senile
  • combination of a) and b)

Question 90

Question
Apically located peripheral pulmonary carcinoma is represented by the eponym
Answer
  • Claude-Bernard-Horner syndrome
  • Pancoast-Tobias
  • Ptosis and miosis
  • Enophthalmus

Question 91

Question
Which diseases complicate siliscosis?
Answer
  • cor hypertonicum
  • cor pulmonale chronicum
  • tuberculosis
  • pneumofibrosis

Question 92

Question
Claude-Bernard-Horner syndrome includes the following:
Answer
  • ptosis, midriasis, anhydrosis
  • ptosis, miosis, increased sweating
  • ptosis. miosis, pseudoenophthalmus
  • anhydrosis

Question 93

Question
What possible gross changes we see in lung carcinoma?
Answer
  • pneumonia-like form
  • ill-defined central node connected to a bronchus
  • linitis plastic
  • peripheral ill-defined node

Question 94

Question
Chronic bronchitis is usually accompanied by
Answer
  • squamous cell metaplasia of the respiratory epithelium
  • phases of purulent inflammation
  • productive cough for at least 2 months/year for 3 consecutive years
  • productive cough for at least 3 months/year for 2 consecutive years

Question 95

Question
Squamous cell lung carcinoma occurs
Answer
  • in the middle lobe of the left lung
  • after squamous cell metaplasia of the respiratory epithelium of bronchi
  • as an ill-defined node connected to a bronchus
  • forming nests of tumor cells producing keratin

Question 96

Question
In small cell lung carcinoma we can observe
Answer
  • numerous tumor cells with scant stroma
  • the tumor cells resemble oat-grains
  • it grows in a pneumonia-like fashion
  • the tumor cells have very high proliferative rate

Question 97

Question
Bronchiolo-alveolar pulmonary carcinoma is characterized by:
Answer
  • forms papillary folds into the alveolar lumen
  • it is a form of squamous cell carcinoma
  • the cells produce keratin
  • it is a form of adenocarcinoma

Question 98

Question
Hodgkin lymphoma has
Answer
  • Five histological variants
  • Hodgkin cells
  • Reed-Stern berg cells
  • Polyclonal inflammatory background

Question 99

Question
In Hodgkin lymphoma we can observe
Answer
  • effaced lymph node structure
  • nodular sclerosis histological form
  • mixed cellularity histological form
  • chronic myeloleukemia

Question 100

Question
Non-Hodgkin lymphomas can be
Answer
  • Nodal
  • B-cell and T -cell types
  • Extranodal
  • none of the above
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